Which aerobic exercise mode is best
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Which aerobic exercise mode is best?. Compare each mode relative to the following criteria Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system ( Consumer Reports Mar 2002, p 13)( Fitness Management August 2000, p 1-3) Relevance to fundamental movements and ADL’s

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Which aerobic exercise mode is best?

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Which aerobic exercise mode is best?

  • Compare each mode relative to the following criteria

    • Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system (Consumer Reports Mar 2002, p 13)(Fitness Management August 2000, p 1-3)

    • Relevance to fundamental movements and ADL’s

    • Proportion of total body musculature involved

    • Degree of compressive stress on femoral head and lumbar vertebral bodies (sites of most osteoporotic fractures)

    • Compressive stress on patella and knee joint

    • Range of motion and torque at hip, knee, and lumbar spine

    • Motivational features (comfort, user friendly, feedback, RPE)

    • Likelihood of continued usage

    • Cost

    • Other?


Comparison of Aerobic Ex Modes:HR while exercising at similar RPE


Comparison of Aerobic Ex Modes:VO2 while exercising at similar RPE


Comparison of Aerobic Ex Modes: Vertical Ground Reaction Force


Comparison of Aerobic Ex Modes:How long does it take to burn 200 calories?Consumer RepMarch 2002, p 13, citing data from MSSE August, 2001.19 subjects exercising at similar RPE’s


Comparison of Health Rider and Treadmill on VO2 Max

  • From website: http://www.isu.edu/departments/dpot/research/healthrider.html

  • Methods:

    • Max ex bouts on each exercise type

    • 15 college males & 15 college females

    • Measured several variables indicative of overload on cardioresp system

    • VO2, VE, RER, Resp Rate, METS, HR, ratio of VO2/HR

  • Results:

    • Treadmill produced superior results for all variables, including VO2 max (53.8 ml/kg/min vs 38.1 ml/kg/min)


Approximate Cost of Aerobic Exercise Equip at Rec Complex

  • Rowers$1,000

  • Stationary Bikes (upright & recumb) $2500

  • Elliptical exercisers$3200

  • SciFit Total Body Crosstrainer$4000

  • Stairstepping machines$4500

  • Hybrid – Cybex Arctrainer$5000

  • Treadmills$5000-$8000


Cross-country ski simulators

  • Advantages

    • Potential for high energy expenditure

    • Good off-season training for skiing competition

    • Can talk or listen or watch

    • Non-impact

  • Disadvantages

    • Not easy to learn to use

    • Need to develop skill

    • None have capability to convert exercise effort into repeatable intensity

    • Most models have poor feedback on work intensity


Stationary cycles

  • Advantages

    • Inexpensive, compact, portable

    • Can listen, talk, and watch

    • No heel-strike forces (.6 g)

    • Good feedback on work rate and energy expenditure

    • Easy to use

  • Disadvantages

    • Sore butt can be a problem

    • Boring

    • Only works the legs – those with poorly conditioned leg muscles will fatigue quickly

    • Low carryover to ADL’s

    • Higher RPE than treadmill or ellipticals


Treadmills

  • Advantages

    • Good carryover to locomotion

    • Can get good aerobic overload

    • Can control speed and slope and can be programmable and reproducible

    • Weight bearing – high GRF’s

    • Easy to learn how to use

    • Greatest incidence of use in homes

    • Lower RPE than most other aerobic ex machines

  • Disadvantages

    • Expensive

    • Impacts and high VGRF may exacerbate lower extremity problems

    • Not portable and compact

    • Noisy


Hybrid: Elliptical Exercisers

  • Advantages

    • Can get good aerobic overload

    • Cheaper than treadmills & stepping machines

    • Lower RPE for same workout intensity

    • Low impact – less stress on lower extremities while allowing a weight-bearing exercise

    • Easy and safe to use

    • No motor- less noisy than treadmills

    • Can control speed and slope and can be programmable and reproducible

  • Disadvantages

    • Low impact and lower VGRF than treadmills

    • Movement is less similar to normal locomotion pattern than treadmills

    • Many models do not allow sufficient stride length for taller people


Rowing machines

  • Advantages

    • Uses large muscle mass than cycling

    • Greater energy energy expenditure than cycling

    • Can talk or listen or watch

    • Non-impact

    • Cheap

    • Easy to learn how to use

  • Disadvantages

    • Limited capability for incrementing and reproducing workload

    • Untrained rowers may fatigue quickly

    • Low carryover to ADL


Stepping machines

  • Advantages

    • Low impact

    • Can talk or listen or watch

    • Easy to learn how to use

    • Relatively inexpensive

  • Disadvantages

    • High knee torque and patellar compressive forces (hard on knees)

    • Minimal trunk and upper body involvement

    • Can be boring


Exercise Equip of Questionable Value

  • Devices which purport to provide great benefits with little effort

  • Devices to vibrate, melt, or massage away fat

  • Stretching, pulling, or pushing devices

  • Wearing or carrying weights

  • Others that you can think of?


Other websites on exercise equipment

  • Source for exercise equipment:

    • Fitnessquest home page

    • http://www.exerlopers.com/

  • Sites including exercise equipment research :

    • ISU Dept of OT

    • Precor research page

    • Sportscience journal


Methods for Resistive Equipment Selection

  • Apply relevant scientific principles to evaluate claims

    • Biomechanical

    • Physiological

    • Psychological

    • Use it yourself at conferences or health clubs

  • Product reviews in fitness magazines (Club Industry, Athletic Business, Fitness Management)

  • Try it yourself and take a tall or short person with you

  • Consult with experts who supervise its use, or other professionals (e.g., professors in area of expertise)

  • Look at research available, if any

  • Evaluate quality of research

    • Who sponsored research?

    • Peer-reviewed presentation?


Relevant Questions for Resistive Equipment Selection (Criteria)

  • Can you apply specificity principles appropriately?

    • Type of contraction, movement pattern, speed

    • Carryover to living in gravitational environment?

  • Is resistance enough to accomodate your strength?

  • Does it fit different sized people?

  • Is it safe?

  • Is it uncomplicated to use (user friendly)

  • Is there scientific evidence to support manufacturer’s claims?

  • Does the equipment follow a normal neuromuscular pattern?

  • If variable resistance, does resistance follow normal strength-position curve?

  • Does it have motivation-enhancing features?


Resistive Exercise Equipment

  • Simple and handy devices (plastic bottles, rubber tubing, springs)

    • adv - cheap, convenient

    • disadv - no versatility in direction, force, speed

  • Constant resistance training devices (free wts, body wt)

    • adv – convenient to use, cheap, balance needed, portable, motivation

    • disadv - safety, inconvenient to change wts, no versatility indirection, speed

  • Gravity-dependent resistance machines (circular pulleys)

    • adv - safety, convenient to change wts, versatility in force direction, motivation

    • disadv - cost, balance not required


Gravity-dependent Resistance Wt Machine

Concentric and eccentric contraction of agonists only!


Resistive Equipment (cont’d)

  • Variable resistance wt machine (CAMS or roller on bar)

    • adv - variable resistance as well as direction of force app, motivation

    • disadv - cost, no versatility in speed

  • Isokinetic devices (same speed)

    • Adv - speed specific, vary force during movement (great for rehab)

    • Disadv – most devices involve only concentric contractions, motivation, cost

  • Computer-assisted devices (can control either speed or resistance)

    • adv - variable resistance & speed, motivation, permanent record

    • disadv - cost


Variable Resistance Weight Machine

Concentric and eccentric contraction of agonists only!


ComputerizedExercise Machine

Agonists and antagonists Concentric contraction only!


Pneumatic Resistance(air, two-way)

Agonists and antagonists Concentric contraction only!


Isokinetic (accomodating) Resistance (one-way)

Agonists concentric contraction only!


Hydraulic Resistance

Agonists and antagonists Concentric contraction only!


Elastic Resistance

Agonists only, concentric & eccentric contraction

Bowflex:

Soloflex:


Exercise Equipment of Questionable Value

  • Devices to vibrate, melt, or massage away fat

  • Stretching, pulling, or pushing devices

  • Wearing or carrying weights

  • Evaluation of several types of ex equip:

    • American Council on Exercise Research Page

    • Fitness Equipment: Index

    • Exerlopers Fitness Systems - Home Page

    • Electrical Muscle Stimulator

  • Source for purchasing exercise equipment:

    • Fitnessquest home page


Approximate Costs of Resistive Ex Equip

  • Free weights

    • Benches $660; dumbbell set $1,300; Rack for dumbbells $585; Olumpic weight set $1,650

  • Plate loaded weight machines - $1,500-$1,700

  • VRI station (variable resistance one axis) - $1,700-$3,900

  • VRII station (variable resistance, 2 axes) - $2,300-$4,000

  • Isokinetic (accomodating resistance) - $10,000

  • Computer-controlled - $20,000


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