Texting and driving
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Texting and Driving. Joanna Curran And Brianna Baer . Texting and Driving . How many teenagers use their phones while driving Are there factors that affect if people use their phones while driving Is texting while driving actually as widespread as the news makes it seem??.

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Texting and Driving

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Texting and driving

Texting and Driving

Joanna Curran

And

Brianna Baer


Texting and driving1

Texting and Driving

  • How many teenagers use their phones while driving

  • Are there factors that affect if people use their phones while driving

  • Is texting while driving actually as widespread as the news makes it seem??


Distractions while driving

Distractions While Driving

  • By observing a national survey of 900 teens around the country

  • Teenagers find these attributes the most distracting for drivers:

    • Instant or text messaging while driving - 37 percent

    • [The teen driver's] emotional state - 20 percent

    • Having several friends in the car - 19 percent

    • Talking on a cell phone - 14 percent

    • Eating or drinking - 7 percent

    • Having a friend in the car - 5 percent

    • Listening to music - 4 percent


Gathering our data

Gathering our Data

  • We observed different surveys given by Insurance companies on teens texting and driving

  • We also conducted a survey of all the different attributes of the surveys we found

    • We sent the questions out in Penn State Altoona’s and St. Joseph’s University student Facebook groups

      • We collected our data in a systematic random sample, and used the results of every third person that responded

      • We used 57 student’s results


Age vs gender

Age Vs. Gender

  • We found that the majority of the data we collected came from females

    • Females were also the only two 19 years olds tested in our experiment

  • There were more females than males in each aspect of the experiment


Phone use while driving vs type of phone

Phone Use While Driving vs. Type of Phone

  • The smart phones have higher results

    • People that own a smart phone use their cell phone more while driving

  • Yet, more people who have regular phones do not use their cell phone while driving


Gender vs what activity used most on phones

Gender vs. What Activity Used Most on Phones

  • We found that females most use their phones to make calls while they drive, consisting of 19 subjects

  • The males and females have low results for iPod use while only 2 males and 3 females responded yes

  • Males most favor texting with 12 subjects responding yes

  • There were 4 subjects that did not apply for this test for they do not use their cell phone while driving


Share car vs pay for own insurance

Share Car vs. Pay for Own Insurance

  • We found that a majority of our subjects do share a car with a parent/family member

  • Yet, most of the respondents stated that they do not pay for their own car insurance

  • Therefore, we performed a test to see who text while driving without having to worry about paying their car insurance


Pay for own car insurance vs cell phone use

Pay for Own Car Insurance vs. Cell Phone Use

  • The majority of our subjects responded that they DO use their cell phone while they are driving, but they do not pay for their own car insurance

  • Those who pay for their own car insurance are less likely to use their cell phone while they are on the road


Support laws vs behavior change

Support Laws vs. Behavior Change

  • A large amount of our subjects responded that they would not support new laws against cell phone use while driving

    • Although, these same subjects say that they would change their behavior if they were put out

  • A good amount of our subjects also responded that they would support these laws

  • Almost all of our subjects stated that they would change their behavior if these laws were enforced


Analysis and conclusions

Analysis and Conclusions

  • Most teens use their phone in some way while driving

    • The majority call, many text, and few use a music feature

  • People are more likely to use their phones in the afternoon or evening

  • Most people would not change their behavior if laws were put in place

    • however most people support a law banning cell phone use while driving


1 proportion z interval

1-Proportion Z Interval

  • Conditions

    • SRS

    • Np, nq >10

    • Pop>10n

  • Assumed

  • 42,15>10

  • # of teens>540

Conditons met=> norm dist=> 1-prop zint

=(.64091,8328)

We are 90% confident that the true proportion of people who use their phones while driving is between 64.091% and 83.28%.


1 proportion z test

1-Proportion Z Test

Conditons met=> norm dist=> 1-prop z test

=-1.1921

P(p<-1.1921)=.1166

We fail to reject the claim because our p-value of .1166 is greater than alpha=.05

We have sufficient evidence that the true proportion of people that use their phones while driving is equal to 80%.


Chi square goodness of fit test

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

  • Conditons

    • Categorical data

    • SRS

    • All exp counts>5

  • Activity on phone is categorical

  • Assumed

  • All exp counts>5

Conditons met=> chi-square dist=> chi-square GOF test


Chi square goodness of fit test1

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

  • Ho: Distribution of our data for activity on phone matches the distribution of nationwide’s data

  • Ha: Distribution of our data for activity on phone does not match the distribution of nationwide’s data

We reject the claim because our p-value of 2.504 x 10^-14 is less than alpha=.05

We have sufficient evidence that the distribution of our data for activity on phone does not match the distribution of nationwide’s data.


Chi square goodness of fit test2

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

We reject the claim because our p-value of 2.504 x 10^-14 is less than alpha=.05

We have sufficient evidence that the distribution of our data for activity on phone does not match the distribution of nationwide’s data.


Chi square test for indepence

Chi-Square Test for Indepence

  • Conditions

    • Categorical Data

    • SRS

    • All exp cell counts>5

  • Phone use and sharing a car are categorical data

  • Assumed

  • All exp cell counts>5

Conditons met=> chi-square dist=> chi-square test for independence


Chi square test for independence

Chi-Square Test for Independence

  • Ho: There is an association between cell phone use and sharing a car

  • Ha: There is no association between cell phone use and sharing a car


Chi square test for independence1

Chi-Square Test for Independence

  • We fail to reject the claim because our p-value of .3891 is greater than alpha=.05

  • We have sufficient evidence that there is an association between cell phone use and sharing a car.


Chi square test for independence2

Chi-Square Test for Independence

  • Conditions

    • Categorical Data

    • SRS

    • All exp cell counts>5

  • Phone use and paying for insurance are categorical data

  • Assumed

  • All exp cell counts>5

Conditons met=> chi-square dist=> chi-square test for independence


Chi square test for independence3

Chi-Square Test for Independence

  • Ho: There is an association between cell phone use and paying for insurance

  • Ha: There is no association between cell phone use and paying for insurance


Chi square test for independence4

Chi-Square Test for Independence

We fail to reject the claim because our p-value of .52341 is greater than alpha=.05

We have sufficient evidence that there is an association between cell phone use and paying for car insurance.


Our findings

Our Findings

  • 1-Prop Z Test

    • Good test to perform, showed our data was not too far away from the national data

  • Chi-Square GOF Test

    • Good test to perform

    • Showed a bias in our data collection (only having data from teens)

  • Chi-Square Tests for Independence

    • Good tests to perform

    • Proved a person is more likely to use their phone if they do not have to share it with another family member

    • Proved a person is more likely to use their phone if they do not have to pay for car insurance.


Bias error

Bias/Error

  • Mostly females responded

  • Only teenagers (ages 17-19) had been able to respond to the survey

  • Only students attending Saint Joe’s or Penn State Altoona as freshman next year could respond

  • Relied on voluntary response


Personal opinions

Personal Opinions

  • Data

    • Easy to collect data

    • People are more willing to participate in our survey than we had expected

    • Surprised our data did not match the distribution of nationwide’s data

    • Not surprised to find associations in our tests for independence

  • Project

    • Took a long time to put together all of the components (as there were many)

    • Fun project to research


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