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Kingdom Protista. Protists. Chapter 19. 19.1 Introduction to Protists. Endosymbiosis. Theory believed to explain origin of eukaryotes and complex organelles like mitochondria & chloroplast. Large prokaryotes engulfed a smaller prokaryote and lived symbiotically

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Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists


  • Theory believed to explain origin of eukaryotes and complex organelles like mitochondria & chloroplast

  • Large prokaryotes engulfed a smaller prokaryote and lived symbiotically

  • Eventually evolved into a single organism


Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists


  • All protists are eukaryotes.

  • Some reproduce asexually by mitosis while others exchange genetic material.

  • Most are single celled

  • First Eukaryotes on Earth

  • Must have moisture


Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Classifying Protists

  • Some scientists classify protists by their methods of obtaining nutrition.

  • Animal-like protists- Heterotroph

  • Plantlike protists- Autotroph

  • Funguslikeprotists-Saprotroph

Animal like protists
Animal-like protists

  • Heterotrophs

  • Single-celled

  • Eat algea, bacteria or other protists

  • “protozoans” = “pre” animals

  • 4 phyla (groups) based on mode of movement

Phylum zoomastigina flagellates
Phylum Zoomastigina - flagellates

Trypanasoma: Giardia:

Causes African sleeping sickness Causes intestinal infections

More zoomastigina trichonympha digests cellulose in termites
More Zoomastigina – Trichonympha – digests cellulose in termites

Phylum sarcodina
Phylum Sarcodina

  • Move and feed through use of pseudopods

  • Pseudopod – temporary projection of the cytoplasm

  • i.e. Amoebas

  • When feeding, they surround food and bring into cell in the form of a food vacuole by endocytosis

Phylum ciliophora ciliates
Phylum Ciliophora - ciliates

  • Use cilia for feeding and movement

  • Cilia: hair-like projections that flow back and forth like ores

  • Example: Paramecium

  • Contain macro (working copy) and micronucleus (reserve copy of genetic info)

  • Contactile vacuole removes excess water

  • Reproduce by conjugation or binary fission


  • Stentor

  • Largest known protozoan

Phylum apicomplexa sporozoans
Phylum Apicomplexa - sporozoans

  • Parasites

  • Move through blood of host organisms

  • Reproduce through spores

  • Ex: Plasmodium causes malaria.

Malaria sporozoite

Protozoa structures
Protozoa Structures

  • Pellicle – A rigid, but flexible structure of microtubules that underlies the plasma membrane of many protozoans.

  • Trichocysts – Some pellicular structures are used for protection. These “threads” cover the body of the protozoan.

Protists and disease
Protists and Disease

  • Malaria – effects 300-500 million people

    • Caused by the sporozoan Plasmodium carried by mosquitoe

  • African sleeping sickness

    • Caused by zooflagellateTrypanosoma

    • Spread by the bite of the Tsetse fly

  • Amoebic dysentery

    • Caused by amoeba in contaminated water

  • Giardia

    • Intestinal infection; ingested from infected waters

Plant like protists aka algae
Plant-like ProtistsAKA: Algae

  • Autotrophs

  • phytoplankton

  • Contain chlorophyll and other pigments

  • Produce 70% of earth’s oxygen

  • 6 phyla

  • Classified by pigment

    and structure


  • Green

  • Brown

  • Red

  • Dinoflagellates

  • Diatom

  • Euglenoid

Phylum chlorophyta green algae
Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae

  • Contain chlorophyll as main pigment

Phylum phaeophyta brown algae
Phylum Phaeophyta – Brown algae

  • Contain brown photosynthetic pigment

  • Include Kelp

Phylum rodophyta red algae
Phylum Rodophyta – red algae

  • Contain red photosynthetic pigments

  • Carrageenan used in ice cream and other yummy foods

Phylum pyrrophyta dinoflagellates
Phylum Pyrrophyta - Dinoflagellates

  • Two flagella around “equator” to spin

  • One flagellum on end to propel forward


Cause red tides

Phylum bacillariophyta diatoms
Phylum Bacillariophyta - Diatoms

  • Pill-box shape

  • Hard outer shell


  • Diatomaceous earth

  • You brush your teeth with these

Phylum euglenozoa euglenoids
Phylum Euglenozoa (Euglenoids)

  • Swim with flagella

  • Live in lakes and streams

  • Can also be heterotrophs!

  • Use eye-spot to detect light

  • Can reproduce asexually through binary fission

  • Example: euglena

Fungus like protists
Fungus-like Protists

  • Feed on decaying matter and absorb nutrients- saprophyte

  • Cell wall with cellulose

  • Slime molds and Water molds/Downy Mildews

Phylum acrasiomycota cellular slime molds
Phylum Acrasiomycota – cellular slime molds

Water molds and downy mildews
Water Molds and Downy Mildews