Formosan Sambar Deer (FSD). Cervus unicolor swinhoei native subspecies in Taiwan The deer are domesticated by controlling their breeding pattern, allowing the farmers to exploit them for the production of velvet antler. 40 N. 20 N. 0 . 20 S. 40 S. Introduction. Temperate.
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)Fallow deer (Dama dama)Sika deer (Cervus nippon)
Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis)Chitaldeer (Axis axis)
1. loosely breeding patterns or completely aseasonal
2. generally seasonally polyestrous and calve in summer
Asher et al., 1997; Mylrea et al., 1999
Asher et al., 1997
Semiadi et al., 1999
* A substantial difference between farms
Season distributions of breeding and fawning
64.4% per mating
Fig. 1. Distribution of 494 matings in FSD hinds. Matings mostly occurred between July and October (93.1%, P< 0.05), with a peak in August (32.8%).
Fig. 2. Distribution of 318 fawnings in FSD hinds. Fawnings mostly occurred between March and June (90.1%, P< 0.05), with a peak in May (35.2%).
* P < 0.05
# 28.6% due to dystocia
Table 3 Occurrences of dystocia in 22 cases of FSD hinds from 19 farms in Taiwan
* from the initiation of parturition to veterinary assistance
Hu = human-caused disturbance
Table 4 Causes of dystocia in FSD hinds in Taiwan
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