1777 1789 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

1777-1789 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 183 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

1777-1789. “What kind of government will we have?” Defining Nationhood and the Constitutional Crises of the 1780s. Successes: •Won the war •Land Ordinance of 1785 •NW Ordinance of 1787 •Treaty of Paris. Weaknesses: •Congress could not enact and collect taxes.

Download Presentation

1777-1789

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1777 1789 l.jpg

1777-1789

“What kind of government will we have?”

Defining Nationhood and the Constitutional Crises of the 1780s


Articles of confederation l.jpg

Successes:

•Won the war

•Land Ordinance of 1785

•NW Ordinance of 1787

•Treaty of Paris

Weaknesses:

•Congress could not enact and collect taxes.

•Congress could not regulate interstate or foreign trade.

•Each state had only one vote in Congress, regardless of population.

•Nine out of 13 states needed to agree to pass any law.

•The Articles could be amended only if all states approved.

•There was no executive branch to enforce laws of Congress.

•There was no national court system to settle congressional law disputes.

Articles of Confederation


Articles of confederation3 l.jpg

Articles of Confederation


The land ordinances l.jpg

The Land Ordinances

  • Land Ordinance of 1785

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  • Provided for the orderly and systematic settlement of western lands

    • Provided for small rural communities to have public institutions

    • Provided requirements for statehood within the territories


Map 7 1 the confederation and western land claims p 199 l.jpg

Map 7.1 The Confederation and Western Land Claims (p. 199)


The old northwest 1785 1787 l.jpg

The Old Northwest, 1785–1787

Northwest Ordinance animated


Annapolis convention l.jpg

Annapolis Convention

  • 1786

  • Only 5 states sent reps to Annapolis, MD

  • Madison and Hamilton convinced others another convention needed to be held in Philadelphia

  • Congress asked states to appoint delegations to Philadelphia


Shays s rebellion 1786 l.jpg

Shays’s Rebellion - 1786

  • Shays' Rebellion was an insurgent movement led by Daniel Shays during 1786-1787 in western Massachusetts.

  • Fears generated by Shays' Rebellion helped to convince states to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention that met in Philadelphia in 1787.

    Source: ABC clio database.


Shays s rebellion l.jpg

Shays’s Rebellion


Constitutional convention of 1787 l.jpg

Constitutional Convention of 1787

  • 55 delegates, 12 states

  • Well-educated, wealthy men

  • Presiding officer - Washington

  • Behind closed doors

  • Some notable figures - absent (Jefferson, Adams, John Jay, Patrick Henry)


Who were the framers l.jpg

Who were the “Framers”?

  • White Male Adults

  • Landowners

  • Some education

  • Some were slave owners

  • Lawyers

  • Merchants


Representation two plans l.jpg

New Jersey Plan

Small states

Equal representation not based on population

Virginia Plan

Large States

Representation based on population

Representation: Two Plans


James madison l.jpg

James Madison

  • Virginia Plan

  • Father of the Constitution

  • Most prepared of the delegates

  • Kept precise notes of the proceedings


Virginia vs new jersey l.jpg

Virginia Plan proposed by the larger states

Establish a national government with 3 branches.

Establish a bicameral Congress.

People elect 1 house

That house elects 2nd house

Representation in both houses based on state population

New Jersey plan proposed by small states

Establish a unicameral Congress

Each state to have 1 vote

Equal representation

States equally represented similar to the Articles of Confederation

VIRGINIA PLAN VS. NEW JERSEY PLAN

Virginia vs New Jersey

Issues of representative government would be argued at Constitutional Convention


3 branches of the federal government l.jpg

3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

SEPARATION OF POWERS

3 Branches of the Federal Government

  • Legislative Branch

  • Congress (Art. 1)

  • Makes the law

  • Executive Branch

  • President (Art. 2)

  • Carries out the law

  • Judicial Branch

  • Supreme Court (Art. 3)

  • Interprets the law

3 Branches are separate, have different powers, co-equal and checks and balances on one another to make sure one branch does not get to powerful


The great compromise l.jpg

The Great Compromise

  • The Connecticut Plan (a.k.a. the Great Compromise)

  • Solved the biggest dispute of the Convention

    • Upper House (Senate) equal representation

    • Lower House (House of Representatives) proportional representation


Conn comp l.jpg

Conn. Comp

GREAT COMPROMISE CREATES CONGRESS

  • Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise

    • New Jersey Plan

    • Virginia Plan

  • People to elect their representatives.

  • 2 houses of Congress

    • Bicameral

CONGRESS

  • HOUSE OF REPESENTATIVES

  • Elected by the people

  • Representatives based on population per state…..

  • More population the more representatives you have

  • 2 year term

  • Satisfied larger states

  • SENATE

  • Elected by each state’s congress

  • Equal representatives

  • 2 representatives per state

  • 6 year term

  • Satisfied smaller states


The great compromise18 l.jpg

The Great Compromise


Other compromises l.jpg

Other Compromises

  • Slavery - 3/5 compromise - Slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation

  • Trade - Commercial Compromise - Congress could regulate interstate and foreign trade

  • Chief Executive - term of office? (4 yrs) (feared too strong of a central leader), electoral college - same number of representatives and senators from each state had an ‘electoral’ vote (feared too much democracy)

  • Ratification - called for 9 of the 13 states for acceptance


Slide20 l.jpg

3/5'S COMPROMISE

  • Northern states

    • objected and would only agree to compromise.

    • 3 of every 5 slaves counted as part of state’s total population.

    • supported by both North and South

  • Southern states

    • slaves counted as part of the total state population.

    • Why?

    • more representatives in Congress.

    • more voting power in Congress meant protecting self-interest of slavery.

  • Northern states agreed to the 3/5’s Compromise only if the South abolished the Slave Trade by 1807……

  • Agreement was made….North was hoping slavery would eventually fade away and die out .

  • This was their step towards abolishing slavery.


Ratification l.jpg

Ratification

  • Submitted to states for approval on Sept. 17, 1787

  • Fierce debate followed

  • Federalists vs. anti-Federalists

  • Ratified in June 1788 by 9 states

  • Virginia, New York (two major states - #10 & #11 to ratify)

  • The Bill of Rights was one of the first orders of business for the new Congress

    • Fulfilled promise to protect individual liberties to the skeptical anti-Federalist factions in key states


Map 7 2 ratifying the constitution of 1787 p 208 l.jpg

In order for the new Constitution to become the “law of the land”, 9 of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution.

  • Delaware30 – 0

  • Pennsylvania 46 – 23

  • New Jersey 38 – 0

  • Georgia26 – 0

  • Connecticut 128 – 40

  • Massachusetts 187–168

  • Maryland63 – 11

  • South Carolina 149 – 73

  • New Hampshire 57 – 47

  • Virginia89 – 79

  • New York30 – 27

  • North Carolina 194 – 77

  • Rhode Island 34 - 22

Map 7.2 Ratifying the Constitution of 1787 (p. 208)


Ratification23 l.jpg

Ratification


Federalists vs antifederalists l.jpg

Federalists

Favored Ratification

Favored stronger central government

Washington & Madison (VA), Hamilton (NY), John Jay, Franklin (PA)

Published 85 essays called “The Federalist Papers” defending and explaining the Constitution

More organized

Antifederalists

Opposed ratification

Feared strong central government

Patrick Henry and George Mason (VA), John Hancock, George Clinton (NY)

Feared government abuse of individual rights

Called for a specific “Bill” of Rights

Less organized

Federalists vs. Antifederalists


Federalists l.jpg

Federalists

Art. 5, 6, 7

RISE OF POLITICAL PARTIES

  • George Washington

  • Ben Franklin,

  • John Adams,

  • James Madison

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • A strong national gov’t over the states was needed to protect “life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness”

  • Constitution was a “sound” document which “limited” the power of the national govt.

  • Gave it power to settle problems within the country.

  • Representative democracy is what the constitution was built on and stated in the Preamble, We the People.

  • Appealed to more the wealthy, business owners and educated.


Anti federalists l.jpg

Anti Federalists

Art. 5, 6, 7Anti Federalists

RISE OF POLITICAL PARTIES

  • The national govt was too powerful and it would take away your right to “life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness”

  • The constitution was a threat to the “rights” we fought for in the Revolution

  • States” should have more authority than the national govt.

  • Feared representative democracy was threatened because our rights were not protected.

  • Appealed to the common man, farmers and less educated

  • Patrick Henry

  • ThomasJefferson

  • Sam Adams

  • George Mason

  • George Clinton (gov. of NY)


Federalist papers l.jpg

Federalist Papers

  • John Jay

  • James Madison

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • Series of Essays published in a NY newspaper

  • Brilliant explanations of Constitution


The federalist papers l.jpg

The Federalist Papers


Signs and seeds of political parties l.jpg

Signs and Seeds of Political parties

  • These divisions led to the beginnings of political parties

  • NOT formal organizations (yet)

  • Washington and others feared these “factions”


Evolution of major parties l.jpg

Evolution of Major Parties


Federalist antifederalist strongholds 1787 1790 l.jpg

Federalist & Antifederalist Strongholds, 1787–1790


Bill of rights l.jpg

Bill of Rights

  • First 10 Amendments to the Constitution

  • Listed basic “natural” rights

  • A compromise to gain Anti-federalist support

  • Madison drafted them


Bill of rights33 l.jpg

FREEDOM of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, Petition

RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS

No QUARTERING of soldiers in peacetime

NO UNREASONABLE SEARCH and SEIZURE

PROTECTION of ACCUSED

RIGHT TO A SPEEDY, PUBLIC TRIAL BY JURY

TRIAL BY JURY IN CIVIL SUITS

NO EXCESSIVE FINES or CRUEL PUNISHMENT

POWERS RESERVED TO THE PEOPLE

POWERS RESERVED TO THE STATES

"BILL OF RIGHTS"

Bill of rights

First 10 Amendments to the Constitution in 1791Rights and freedoms won in the Revolution are preserved and protected…


The bill of rights l.jpg

The Bill of Rights


Us govt 1789 l.jpg

US Govt 1789

US GOVERNMENT IN 1789

With the new constitution, the National Government was given the power to tax, regulate trade, enforce its laws and over the states. National Govt. law would always be over the states.

New Constitution gave the National Govt. 60% of governmental powers….National Govt. was over the states……..

States given 40% of governmental powers…States would have some powers to control their own affairs.


How the weaknesses of the articles of confederation were corrected by the constitution l.jpg

Articles of Confederation

States have most of the power and national govt. has little.

No executive to carry out the laws of Congress

No national courts---only state courts

9/13 states have to approve a law before it goes into effect

Congress has no power to tax

Congress can not regulate trade among the states.

Each state coined its own money. No national currency.

Unicameral Congress

Articles only a “firm league of friendship”

US Constitution

States have some power, but most power is given to the national govt.

Federal Government

Electoral College

3 branches of govt.

Executive---enforces law

Legislative---makes law

Judicial---interprets law

Checks and balances

Congress given the power to tax, regulate trade and enforce laws.

Only national govt. has the power to coin money

Bicameral (2 house) Congress

Equal Representation by States and a State’s population

Constitution established a strong National Govt. over the States and to form a more “perfect union”

US Governments in 1781 and 1789

How the Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation were Corrected by the Constitution


  • Login