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JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense PowerPoint PPT Presentation

JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense Key Issues 1) 1 . Following the US with frustration a ) China Policy 1972 b ) Weak Diplomacy on Okinawa US Base 2 . The Lack of Principles a ) Foreign Aid Policy & Democracy b ) South Africa during Apartheid 3 . Weak Intelligence

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JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense

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Japan foreign relations defense l.jpg

JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense


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Key Issues 1)

  • 1.Following the US with frustration

    • a)China Policy 1972

    • b)Weak Diplomacy on Okinawa US Base

  • 2.The Lack of Principles

    • a)Foreign Aid Policy & Democracy

    • b)South Africa during Apartheid

  • 3.Weak Intelligence

    • a)Soviet Military Coup against Gorbachev


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Key Issues 2)

  • 4.Inward Looking Diplomats

    • Meet Japanese Politicians rather than US VIP

  • 5.Revisionists

    • Rational, Right Wing

  • 6.Misperception: US role in the Japanese security

    • Security Treaty, Base, Atomic Bomb

  • 7.World War II Legacy

  • 8.Trade Surplus & Economic Imperialism?


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Foreign Political Relations

  • 1.Geopolitics

    • a)Island Nation located in the cold spot and then hot spot

    • b)Nationalism: Natural National Border

    • c)Poor Natural Resources


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History

  • a)Mongolian Attack & Divine Wind “Kamikaze”

  • b)No colonial experience

  • c)Meiji: Rich Nation Strong Army

  • d)Colonization : The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

    • (1)Taiwan

    • (2)Korea

    • (3)Manchuria


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World War II Legacy in Asia

  • (1)Textbook Issues

    • (a)Advance vs Aggression

  • (2)Comfort Women

  • (3)Nanjing Massacre


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Japan-China Relations

  • a)Normalization 1972 Nixon and Tanaka

  • b)“Special Historical Relationship”

  • c)Japanese Left and China

  • d)Current IT industrial development


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Japan-Soviet (Russia) Relations

  • Russians negative image:

    • (1)Russo-Japan war

    • (2)Soviet advance after the surrender: 600,000 POW

    • (3)Northern Territory Issue: Kurile


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Japan and the Third World

  • a)JICA aid

  • b)Racism: South Africa


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Relations with the United States

  • a)The Cold War: ally

  • b)Korea War & Vietnam War big demand

  • c)1970s relation turned tense: economy

  • d)Nixon China & Gold: Rise of Yen values

  • e)1980s trade conflicts

  • f)1990s Asian economic crisis


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Security Issues

  • a)Ambivalence: free rider & threat

  • b)Japan’s GNP 1% policy

  • c)The Mutual Security Treaty: For whom?


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3.Development Assistance

  • a)ODA No.1 since 1988

  • b)Tied to its own economic development?


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Technical Cooperation

  • a)Military and Civilian technology

  • b)Better F-15?

  • c)FSX issue “technonationalism”

  • d)Japanese civilian technology in Gulf War


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The Nuclear Issue

  • a)Nuclear Power Generation & “technonationalism”

  • b)Nuclear Fusion and recent accidents

  • c)Public opposition “Nuclear allergy”


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Foreign Economic Relations

  • a)1973 Oil Shock used for improving efficiency

  • b)Non-Tariff Barrier NTB & Japanese custom

  • c)US Market and US interest

  • d)“Rabbit hutch” mentality: High satisfaction & low consumption

  • e)Image of quality of domestic brand: CD players


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International Trade Pressures

  • a)Stock exchange closed for long time until 1985

  • d)Who is forcing to buy? American consumer minds

  • e)Weak open academic research

  • f)Super 301: Republican but tough on Japan

  • g)Structural Impediments Initiative in the 1980s

  • h)Is Japan wrong?


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Defense

  • 1.The Myth of Japanese military power

  • 2.Defense Equipment, Business, & Ideology

  • 3.Mongolian invasion & The Opium War


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From Hot War to Cold War

  • 1.Article 9 by the United States GHQ

  • 2.Change of International atmosphere

  • 3.the Korean War

  • 4.1950 Police Reserve

  • 5.1954 SDF

  • 6.Various opinions toward SDF even within LDP


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The Japanese Defense Establishment

  • a)1951 the Mutual Security Treaty

  • b)untested military in real fight

  • c)1976 1% of GNP ceiling

  • d)3rd Largest Military spending


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Organization of the Military

  • a)Quarter of million personnel

  • b)90% of equipment produced domestically

  • c)Advanced Front-line equipment

  • d)Shortage of Ammunitions

  • e)Subsidizing American forces in Japan

  • f)“nuclear allergy”: Three Non-Nuclear Principles: no manufacture, no introduction, no possession


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Projecting Japanese Military Power

  • a)PM Suzuki and Nakasone 1980s: Sea lanes 1000 miles

  • b)Nakasone “Unsinkable Aircraft Career”


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Japan and International Peacekeeping Operations

  • 1.The Gulf War in 1991: No thanks to Japan while 13 billion contribution: checkbook diplomacy

  • 2.PKO under UN charter

  • 3.PKF & Peace Senility


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Constraints on Expanding the Military

  • 1.Public Opinion

    • a)SDF as Disaster relief agency or worse Snow Festival

  • 2.Article 9

    • a)Avoidance of Rule on Constitutionality of SDF

  • 3.Budget Constraints

    • a)1% 1.006% in 1989


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Japanese Strategy in the 21st Century

  • 1.North Korea’s Nuclear capability

  • 2.Tepodon Missile and vulnerability

  • 3.Yasukuni Shrine Issues


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