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0.7g. 0.7g. DNF. Autocross School, 2006 Grenada, MS. By James Lee, Lance Coley, Matthew Anderson, Teddy Gibson Special thanks to: Roger H. Johnson and Trey Walker. Volunteer Organization. All events are run by volunteers In order to compete, you must “work” the course

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Autocross School, 2006 Grenada, MS

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0.7g

0.7g

DNF

Autocross School, 2006Grenada, MS

By James Lee, Lance Coley, Matthew Anderson, Teddy Gibson

Special thanks to:

Roger H. Johnson and Trey Walker


Volunteer Organization

  • All events are run by volunteers

  • In order to compete, you must “work” the course

  • More co-operation means a smoother running event


Working the course

  • Obtain work assignments from chief of workers

  • Report to work station on time

  • Station will have some extra cones, fire extinguisher, red flag and radio

  • One person holds both the radio and the red flag

  • Everyone else picks up downed cones

  • Watch cones and not that beautiful Saleen Mustang that’s driving by

  • Face cars at all times – never turn your back

  • Watch out for other workers

  • If there is an emergency on course, show the red flag and try to get the driver to stop


Working the Course

  • Each downed cone is a 2 second penalty which will be added to your final time

  • Person calls in the cone(s) mentioning:

    • Station number

    • Car and class

    • Number of cones


DNF

No DNF if any part of the car hits this cone

Working the Course

NO DNF

  • 2006 Solo Rule book 7.9.3

    • A “DNF”, or a time penalty if so specified in the supplementary regulations, shall be charged for any uncorrected deviation from the course, or for unnecessarily delaying the event. A course deviation shall not be charged if any part of the car hits a marker defining the limits of the course. A DNF is charged only if part of the course is omitted. In returning to the course after an off course excursion, it is acceptable to drive a part of the course a second time.

DNF = Did not finish

National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 45


Working the course

  • Penalties

  • Directional cones do NOT count!!!

“National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 44


Working the Course

  • No Penalty

  • Directional cones do NOT count!!!

“National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 44


Make sure car passes tech inspection

Drive quickly and safely

Bring out the full potential of the car

on a given course

Drive car at the limit

Choose the optimum racing line

Analyze course conditions

Driver Responsibility


Tech inspection

  • Seat belts working

  • Roll bar for certain classes

  • Removable tops / panels

  • Brakes / fluids / pedal

  • Battery firmly mounted

  • Fluid leaks

  • Muffler / exhaust

  • Loose items removed from car

  • Front suspension / steering

  • Throttle return / belts / accessories

  • Tires / tread / pressure / treadwear

  • Wheels / hubcaps / lugs

  • Number / class marked on car

  • Helmet


Class and Numbers

14SM2

8 in

4 in

1.25 in

0.75 in

“National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 30


Class and Numbers

“National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 226


Helmet Requirements

  • Snell foundation standards

    • Current and two immediately preceding standards (SA, K, M)

      • Current Standard is 2005, so 95 and 2000 standards are valid

    • SFI standards

      • 31.1A, 31.2A, 41.1A, 41.2A

“National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 33


Helmet Requirements


Helmet Requirements

http://www.smf.org

http://www.motorsportbayern.de/verschiedenes/reglement/slalom-tipps-helme.htm


Brand

Tread Wear Indicators

U.T.Q.G.

Tire size

Tires

Maximum load/pressure

Model


Radial

Rim diameter

Width

225/50ZR16 92Y

Aspect Ratio

Speed Rating

H ~ 130 mph

V ~ 149 mph

Z > 149 mph

W ~ 168 mph

Y ~ 186 mph

225mm

225mm x 50%

Tires

  • Uniform Tire Quality Grading

  • System (U.T.Q.G.)

  • Treadwear

    • 100 ~ 30,000 miles*

    • 200 ~ 60,000 miles

    • > 140 ~ Street Tire

    • < 140 ~ Open Tire

  • Traction (AA, A, B, C)

    • Testing on wet surface

    • Compound not tread design

  • Temperature (A, B, C)

    • Ability to dissipate heat

    • Based on tire’s ability to operate at high speed w/o failure

*http://www.hankooktireusa.com


Tire Pressures

  • If suspension settings cannot be changed or if suspension settings are optimal, adjust tire pressures until tire wear barely touches the TWI markings

Tread Wear Indicators (TWI)

Tread wear


Contact Patch and Weight Transfer

Front

Front

Front

Rest

Equal contact patches on all tires

Accelerating

Weight transferred to rear tires

Braking

Weight transferred to front tires

Front

Front

Front

Right turn

Weight transferred to left hand tires

Left Turn

Weight transferred to right hand tires

Brake Turning (Trail-braking)

Weight concentrated on the front outside tire


Slip Angles

Direction vehicle is traveling

Direction tire is pointed

Slip angle

Race Tire

Street Tire


Slip Angles

  • Slip angle and self aligning torque* (steering centering force)

  • Sensitive drivers “feel” the steering effort fall off letting him/her know that they are out of the optimum slip angle range

Self Aligning Torque

*“Drive to win” by Caroll Smith, Carroll Smith Consulting, Inc., Palos Verdes Estates, CA, 1996, p. 2-7


Slip Angles

Overdriving/

Drifter

Optimum (Genius Level)

Novice

Advanced Driver/Talented Novice


*

“Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p.

Neutral Steer

  • Front tire slip angle the same as rear tire slip angle*

  • Ideal

  • 4 wheel drift!

  • Might feel like a substantial slide to a novice

  • Satisfaction guaranteed!

5o

5o

Front tire slip angle the same as rear tire slip angle


*

“Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p.

Understeer

  • Front tire slip angle larger than rear tire slip angle*

  • Causes

    • Front tires have less traction than rear tires

      • Improper car setup

      • Natural handling characteristic of car (FWD, AWD)

      • Insufficient weight transfer to the front tires before turning

    • Entering a turn to fast (Overcooking)

  • “Remedies”

    • Unwind wheel

      • If front tires over optimum slip angle range

      • If front tires lose rotational speed

    • Slow down the car gently by lightly letting off the gas pedal or by light left-foot braking

      • Transfers weight to front tires

      • Reduces centripetal force

    • Trail braking

    • Curse *wont do anything but will make you feel better, look cool*

15o

5o


*

“Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p.

Oversteer

  • Rear tire slip angle greater than front tire slip angle*

  • Causes

    • Rear tires have less traction than front tires

      • Improper car setup

      • Natural handling characteristics of car (RWD)

      • Excessive trail-braking

      • Abrupt/jerky steering inputs

    • Trailing throttle oversteer (TTO)

    • Power oversteer

  • “Remedies”

    • Countersteer

    • TTO - keep constant throttle or possibly increasing throttle input gradually to transfer weight to the rear

    • Power oversteer - decrease throttle input to reduce tire slippage

    • Stop watching dvd’s like “drift society”, “dorifuto tengoku”, “option”, etc.

5o

30o


0.7g

0.7g

Traction circle

  • Represents the grip capability of a car

  • Can only use 100% of any one action at a time

  • Or split duty between two actions

  • To maximize the use the traction circle, you need to drive smoothly


Corner sequence

  • Threshold braking zone

  • Brake turning zone/trail-braking

  • Constant throttle zone

  • Gradual increase in acceleration while unwinding wheel

  • Always use smooth steering inputs and smooth transitions

Acceleration

Braking

Turning


Basic racing lines

  • The traditional racing line is the widest constant arc through a corner

  • Maintains momentum throughout corner

  • Excellent line for low horsepower cars or for large radius corners


Racing line Early Apex

Wheee!@#%$#$

  • Premature turn-in severely chokes corner exit.

  • Corner exit speed suffers

  • May result in an “agricultural excursion”


Racing LinesLate Apex

  • Gives up a little speed at entry to gain a “longer straightaway” on exit

  • Ideal for straight-line traction limited cars (ie. high horsepower) or for tighter corners

  • Safer than early apex


Sacrifice Corners

  • Line you would take if corner leads to a straight

  • But you need to place car here if you want to take the next turn with the widest arc


Sacrifice Corners

  • Cars with lower HP can’t accelerate as fast so they need to maintain as high a speed as possible therefore the “fast line” for them is a little different. Typically they need to maintain a higher average speed.

  • The sacrificial line taken by a high HP car if the second turn leads into a significantly long straight

Miata

Miata

Miata


Advanced TechniquesTrail-braking/Heel and Toe/Left foot braking

  • Trail-Braking

    • Instead of completing braking before turn-in, braking is initiated slightly later and continued through turn-in to take advantage of the traction circle

    • Once turn-in begins, braking must be decreased to prevent wheel lock-up

    • Can be used to help rotate car at turn-in

  • Left Foot Braking

    • Can be used in conjunction with trail-braking

    • Allows better mid-corner balancing of car’s steady-state attitude

    • Allows quicker transition from brakes to gas after turn-in

    • Normally only done when a downshift is not required to take the corner

    • Excellent autocross technique, but some great drivers don’t use it

  • Heel/Toe Downshift

    • Utilized when a downshift is required in the braking zone

    • Match revs without lifting off brakes, maintaining control of cars attitude.

    • Rarely needed on an autocross course

These techniques smoothes out braking-turning/acceleration-braking transitions


Seating Position

  • Seat should be upright to slightly reclined.

  • Arms should have slight bend at elbow so that the steering wheel can be turned about 180 degrees without completely straightening arms

  • Hands should not hit legs at severe steering angles

  • Always use both hands to control the steering wheel

  • Legs should be slightly bent at the knee


Course Walking

  • Objective

    • Familiarize yourself with general course lay-out

    • Identify key cones

    • Define driving lines

    • Find places to gain an “edge” on competition

  • Course should be walked twice at a minimum

    • Once with experienced person or group to discuss lines

    • Again by yourself to define your own line and memorize course.

    • Should have a good enough visual image of course to “mind drive” it


Locating Key Cones

Key Cone

  • Locate “key cones”

  • Key cones dictate the racing line

  • Choose line based on car, key cones and how wide the gates are

  • Wider gates allow for sloppier lines which are not necessarily faster

Key Cone

Key Cone

Key Cone

Key Cone

Diagram Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


The wall at the 180º will tend to make an unwary competitor square the corner out. The driver who looks carefully will round the corner out and use the lack of wall to their advantage

Competitors that don't "read" the course tend to drive cone to cone. The indicated cone will tend to pull in a driver who has not thought this one out. The fast line is to stay wide to make a sweeping turn.

The

Brainer

The

Brainer

which will cause cursing here!

If followed, the visual straight will cause a lot of dramatic tire screeching at this point, followed by continual cursing over here

these cones tend to pull you in

note lack of wall here

Choosing a Line – Recognizing Visual Deceptions

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


Version A; Basic 240 foot 5 cone slalom

Version B; same maneuver, visually different

Version C; same maneuver, visually different

Version D; same maneuver, visually different

Slaloms

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


example 2

example 1

example 3

Slaloms

Examples slaloms in “disguise”

  • Recognize certain course features as slaloms

  • Focus on key cones when walking/driving the course

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


SlalomsPacing Slalom cone distances

Slalom cone distances may vary. Therefore it’s a good practice to always pace them

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


Version "B"

Version "B"

Overlap will make a maneuver more difficult

Slowing things

Slowing things down

down

With an increasing overlap, you will be forced to slower through the slalom. A small increase here will also have a surprisingly large effect

Slaloms

The Gap will make a tight maneuver faster

Version "A"

Speeding things up

With an increasing gap, you will be able to drive faster through the slalom. A small increase (e.g. one foot) will have a surprisingly large effect

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


The placement of the entry and exit gates will increase/decrease the severity of a slalom. You should know how many turns are required so that you can return the throttle appropriately.

Slaloms

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


Other Visual Deceptions

Look painful - but are not

Truly Painful

solutions keeping the same flavor as the original

Narrow, walled in sharp turns

these areas

cause the

All can be driven as one flowing turn…

maneuver to be

painful

The problem associated with this narrow walled in turn is that the placement of the wall forces the turn to be made up of 2 or more painful turns instead of a flowing turn

30' gates

18' gates

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


Looking Ahead

  • When you are here

    • You need to be spotting this key cone

  • When you are here

    • You need to be looking at this key cone

  • When you are here

    • You need to be looking there

Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA


Revolving magical gates

Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005

Watch these cones

Racing Line


Revolving magical gates

Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005

Now they look like a slalom


Revolving magical gates

Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005

But wait, If you take the correct line, they open up into a short straight!


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