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Memory Episodic Memory & Other Issues Class Website www.psych.neu.edu/coley/psyu466/psyu466.html Outline Episodic v Semantic Memory Encoding Specificity Schemas & Scripts Implicit Memory & Subception Content Knowledge Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short-term Working Memory

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Memory

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Memory l.jpg

Memory

Episodic Memory & Other Issues


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Class Website

www.psych.neu.edu/coley/psyu466/psyu466.html


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Outline

  • Episodic v Semantic Memory

  • Encoding Specificity

  • Schemas & Scripts

  • Implicit Memory & Subception

  • Content Knowledge


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Model of Memory

Sensory

Memory

Short-term

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory


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Model of Memory

F

I

L

T

E

R

Sensory

Memory

Short-term

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory


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Model of Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Auditory


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Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory


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Semantic & Episodic Memory

  • What evidence would show that Semantic and Episodic Memory are distinct and independent systems?

  • Amnesia

    • One memory system damaged.

    • One memory system intact.


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PET Scan


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Encoding Specificity

  • Memory retrieval is enhanced under conditions similar to the conditions at encoding.

  • Roediger & Payne (1983)

    • Homographs (squash)

    • Studied as “Sports” or “Vegetables”

      • Sports: Soccer, Squash, Basketball…

      • Vegetables: Potatoes, Squash, Carrots…


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Encoding Specificity

Free Recall

Squash?

Congruous Recall

Sports?

Squash?

Sports

Soccer

Squash

Basketball

Incongruous Recall

Vegetables?

Squash?


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Encoding Specificity


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Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory


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Schemas

  • Large unit of representation that organizes relations among concepts, situations, events, and/or actions in memory.

  • Jane heard the jingling of the ice cream truck. She ran to get her piggy bank and started to shake it. Finally some money came out.


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Schemas

  • How old is Jane

  • Why did she get the money?

  • Did she turn her piggy bank upside down?

  • Did bills come out?

  • How big was the piggy bank?

  • Where was the piggy bank located?


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Scripts

  • Script: “A knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular common situation.”

    • Going to the Dentist

    • Going to a Restaurant

    • Taking an Exam


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Schemas & Scripts: Implications

  • Integration: Info from specific events combined with general knowledge

    • Experience shapes scripts

    • Scripts guide recall

  • Advantages & Disadvantages

  • Implications for Episodic-Semantic distinction?


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Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory


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Right Ear:

Essay, asked to shadow

Left Ear:

Homophone word pairs (son/sun)

First word biased the interpretation (youngest/rising)

“rising sun… taxi fare…”

Implicit Memory


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Implicit Memory

  • Asked to

    • Summarize essay

    • Recognition test for shadowed words/homophones

    • Oral spelling test including homophones

      • “sun… fare…”

  • Spelling primed w/o subject awareness


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Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory


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Subception

  • Greenwald et al. (1991)

  • Subliminal learning, self-help, etc.

  • Used 2 commercially available tapes

    • Memory, Self Esteem

  • Design

    • Pretest: Mem, S-E

    • Given a tape, listened daily for month

    • Posttest: Mem, S-E, Self ratings on Improvement


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Greenwald et al., Design


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Greenwald et al., Results

  • Self-improvement ratings corresponded to tape label.

  • Test scores improved on both measures.

  • Improvement unrelated to content of tapes.


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Memory & Content Knowledge

  • Chi (1978)

  • Child chess experts

  • Adult chess novices

  • Memory for

    • Chess positions

    • Digit span


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Long Term Memory: Summary

  • Semantic Memory

    • Hierarchical Networks

    • Spreading Activation

  • Episodic Memory

    • Classic Effects (primacy, recency, etc.)

    • Eyewitness Testimony

  • Schemas/Scripts

    • Integrate general knowledge and specific events.

  • Separate Semantic & Episodic Systems?


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