Mass Spec Chemical Profiling of Gas Composition in Real Time at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Qu...
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Mass Spec Chemical Profiling of Gas Composition in Real Time at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad. Mike Sterner and Don Hall Fluid Inclusion Technologies. Divining Quad Overview.

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Mass Spec Chemical Profiling of Gas Composition in Real Time at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Mike Sterner and Don Hall Fluid Inclusion Technologies


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Divining Quad Overview at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • The dq1000 is a portable stand-alone mass spectrometer-based gas analyzer providing routine chemical analysis of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, organic acids, volatile inorganic compounds and mud additives, to infer petroleum type and quality, fluid contacts, proximity to pay, porosity, compartmentalization.

  • The dq1000 is fully automatic - requiring only a continuous supply of gas from the extractor, a depth input and a more-or-less continuous supply of electricity.

  • Together with FIT’s proprietary server software and a satellite uplink, real time data are available virtually anytime, anywhere….


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Analytical Limitations of Conventional Gas Equipment at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • TGD records total combustible hydrocarbons without compound specificity

  • GC generally analyzes gas-range n-alkanes, which react similarly to subsurface processes. Other two major classes of hydrocarbons (naphthenes and aromatics) not recorded

  • Generally poor performance on C5+ at low concentration

  • Analysis of inorganic compounds (e.g., CO2, H2S, He) requires special equipment

  • Infexible to specific needs of individual wells


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Species Analyzed by the dq1000 at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • C1-C10organic species

  • Discriminates among paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics

  • BTEX compounds and organic acids

  • Inorganic volatiles such as CO2, He, N2 and other atmospherics, H2S and other sulfur species, H2, etc.

  • Identifies contribution from mud system and organic additives


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Why Analyze these Additional Compounds? at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • Better estimates of petroleum type and quality

  • Identifying fluid contacts

  • Delineating porosity/permeability trends

  • Inferring nearby charge in wet reservoirs

  • Establishing reservoir and basin compartmentalization


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Interpretation of dq1000 Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • Based on Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) analysis of thousands of wells worldwide over the last 15 yrs


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FIS Schematic at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad


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FIS Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Organic Acid

Lith Log

Black = Inorganic species

Red = Gas-range HC’s

Blue = Water-soluble species

Green = liquid-range HC’s

Benzene

E-logs

CO2

H2S

C1

C7

CS2

SEAL ZONE

BYPASSED PAY ZONE

THIN MIGRATION ZONES

AND SEALS

SEAL ZONE

PAY ZONE

GAS-OIL CONTACT

OIL-WATER CONTACT


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Interpretation of dq1000 Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

  • Verified by dq1000 analysis of 40+ wells over the last 5 yrs


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dq1000 Application Examples at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad


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HC’s to C at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad8

Mostly atmosphere; minor dry gas

HC’s to C8;wetter

HC’s to C7

P/N

HC’s to C7 with aromatics

HC’s to C10;wetter; aromatic rich

B

T

B

P/N

X

T

dq1000 Mass Spectra Examples


Comparison of dq1000 and conventional gc c1 c5 performance 250 gu anomaly l.jpg

Mass Spec at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Chrom

Mass Spec

Chrom

Mass Spec

Chrom

C1

C3

C3

C5

C5

C1

S/N =

S/N =

S/N =

S/N =

4:1

3:1

2:1

1.5:1

S/N =

2:1

S/N =

N/A

Comparison of dq1000 and Conventional GC: C1-C5 Performance; 250 GU Anomaly


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C at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad5

C6

C7

C8

C9

C1

25 ppm

0.3 ppm

baseline

shift

1 ppm

baseline

shift

dq1000 C6+ Performance; 2000 GU Anomaly


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SHOW 1 at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

SHOW 3

SHOW 2

C1

C1

C1

B

W

B

W

Gas-Cond (Tested)

B

W

Possible oil (Untested)

Possible Gas (Untested)

Balance = (C1+C2)/(C3+C4+C5)

Wetness = (Sum C2 to C5)/(Sum C1 toC5)

dq1000 Balance and Wetness Ratios in Three Shows; Improved Est. Ptrlm Type


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Fluid Contacts; dq1000 Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Bacterially altered wet gas anomaly. High CO2 resulted in suppressed readings on conventional TG and GC equipment. Sulfur species are concentrated in the water leg.

Subtle relative benzene anomaly in water leg

Sulfur species

CO2

Porosity

Compartment indicators

Suppressed

TG Detect.

Top of Show

HC’s to C7

Gas-Water Contact


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Proximity to Pay (PTP): BTEX in Oil Field Brines at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Buccaneer Field; Galveston Blks. 288 and 296; GOM

BTEX compounds

are fractionated into

brine due to their high

solubility in water

From Burtell and Jones; OGJ; June ‘96


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PTP: Benzene in Nisku Brines at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

5

1

Benzene Concentration (ppm)

0.2

4

8

12

From Burtell and Jones;

OGJ; June ‘96

Distance to Production (miles)


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Proximity to Pay: FIS Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

FIS data document diffusion of BTEX and organic acid across lateral fault seal at reservoir depth. Similar anomalies are seen in the water leg. Presence of these features significantly enlarges exploration target and extends view well beyond the limits of the borehole

BTEX and organic acid anomalies in reservoir equivalent section across fault

C7

Benzene

Acetic Acid

Benzene

Oil indications in reservoir

BTEX and organic acid anomalies in water leg to updip oil reservoir.

= diffusion of water soluble species


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Proximity to Pay; dq1000 Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Huge BTEX anomaly

Sulfur species

CO2

Compartment indicators

Bacterially altered wet gas anomaly; indications of nearby charge

Proposed compartments

Sand probably charged up-dip with altered wet gas

Tight

Porous

Possible residual HC zone

Porous

Possible Paleo-HC-water contact

Tight


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Seal Definition and Reservoir Compartments; FIS Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Methane

FIS methane response indicates effectiveness of top seal and inter-reservoir seal. Fluid inclusions in the two reservoirs have discrete chemistries. Biomarker work indicates a separate source for the two fluids.

SEAL

A

SEAL

B


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Reservoir Compartmentalization; dq1000 Data at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

Elevated BTEX in Seals overlying shows

Increase porosity with depth in SHOW #2

SHOW #1 compartmentalized. SHOW #2 wetter; chemically distinct; better porosity; out of communication with SHOW #1.

Compartment indicators

Top Show #1

SHOW #1

Base Show #1

Top Show #2

SHOW #2

Base Show #2


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ROP at Wellsite with the dq1000 Divining Quad

CO2

Pressure Compartments; dq1000 Data

Onset of overpressure indicated by increase in CO2 in relatively monotonous carbonate sequence. Note also parallel decrease in ROP associated with drilling harder rock


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Elevated relative benzene in sand overlying proposed source rock may indicate lateral charge

Sulfur species

CO2

Compartment indicators

Mature Source Rock; dq1000 Data

High gas readings in shale; low in overlying sand. Associated anomalous species include CO2, organic acid and sulfur compounds. Data suggest that shale is oil-mature active source rock. Possible up-dip charge


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Porosity and Basin Compartments; dq1000 Data rock may indicate lateral charge

Differences among trends are primarily related to fluid source and migration history. Differences along trend are primarily related to porosity. Secondary porosity effects (e.g., in tight rock) may contribute to scatter around trends

Data from Anomalies in Well “A”

Trend 1

Trend 2

Trend 3

Trip gas composition correlates to zone (s) from which it is derived


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The Woodford Fm, in this area is characterized by anomalous hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.


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dq1000 Application Conclusions hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Effective single-instrument replacement for the TGD and GC

  • Better measurement of wet-gas and liquid-range organic species even at low TG

  • Superior chemical characterization from measurement of wide range of compounds

  • Data used to infer petroleum type and quality, fluid contacts, proximity to pay, porosity, compartmentalization


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Mass Spec hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.in the Field

  • Portable mass specs deploy like conventional gas detection equipment

  • Gas Extractor

  • Pump

  • Filters

  • Flow Regulators

  • Satellite dish ?


Hardware overview l.jpg
Hardware Overview hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Scanning quadrupole mass spectrometer and two-stage turbo pumping system routinely monitor chemical variations over a dynamic range of 7+ orders of magnitude.

  • Standard issue PC/laptop computer - running any windows based operating system makes on-the-spot computer repair/replacement trivial. Full swap-out can be accomplished in ~5 min.

  • Field serviceable - most routine maintenance operations can be performed on-site by logger. TBF (un-manned service ~ 9 wks and counting)


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Hardware Cont’d. hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Full Electronic Isolation - Shielded, Surge Protected, UPS Battery Backup, providing continuous, uninterrupted service in extremely hostile environments.

  • International Deployment - electrical power requirements are 90-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz. Included UPS provides minimum of 20 min power backup - scaleable as necessary.


Software overview l.jpg
Software Overview hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • FIT’s dq1000 Divining Quad trap-gas analyzer uses a proprietary, WITS compatible, Windows-based software driver developed by FIT.

  • The software optimizes the application of mass spectrometry to well site geochemistry, incorporating depth and other essential drilling parameters monitored by dq1000’s internal circuitry and associated external sensors into LAS-format digital output suitable for display, data transfer and archival.

  • Together with FIT’s proprietary server software and a satellite uplink, real time data are available virtually anytime, anywhere….


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Analytical Overview hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Unit Mass Discrimination from AMU = 1 - 140

  • Analytical cycle time is adjustable between 15 seconds and 6 minutes (nominally ~2 min/cycle)

  • Dynamic analytical range of 7+ orders of magnitude

  • Fully temperature compensated

  • Calibrate with standard test gases (minimal drift requiring infrequent calibration)

  • Discriminates paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, organic acids, CO2, He, N2, O2, H2S, H2 andmud additives


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Seal hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general. Zone

N2

O2

N,N++

H2O

Ar

CO2

C1

Ar++

Pay Zone

C4 Naphthene

C1

C4 Paraffin

H2

C3

CO2

He

C5

Benzene

Toluene

Xylenes

C7

C9

H2S

Representative Chemistries


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Dq1000 Mass Spectra hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.


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Crossplots hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.


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Reproducibility hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

Curves intentionally offset to allow comparison


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Depth/Drilling Parameter Monitoring hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Driller depth, and other parameters, i.e., ROP, lag, pump strokes, etc. necessary to provide a complete mud log can be monitored from LAN broadcasts and incorporated into the final log.

  • Alternatively, depth, circulation and pump strokes (up to 3 pumps) can be monitored using the dq1000’s internal circuitry and associated external sensors for calculation of lag and ROP and these parameters can in turn be re-broadcast over a LAN along with chemical data if desired.


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Dq1000 Specifications hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general.

  • Dimensions: 26in x 7.5in x 15in

  • Weight: 61 lbs (portable)

  • Power: 85-264 VAC (3.0-1.5 Amp)

    47-63 Hz (international)

  • Network: LAN, Internet, Satellite

  • Sensors: Mud Circulation, Pump Strokes,

    Depth, Gas Extraction Line Flow

  • Cycle Time: 15 sec – 6 min

    (2 min nominal)

  • Modes: Dual (differential) or

    Single Port Gas Stream


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dq1000 hydrogen, and preliminary observations suggest that highest hydrogen concentrations are observed in best quality source rock. Other potential source shales in the penetrated section do not contain anomalous hydrogen; consequently, data can be used to infer Woodford gas contribution to reservoirs in the vicinity. Other potential applications include identification of intra-Woodford fractures, and elucidation of source rock quality and maturity. Similar approaches may benefit shale gas plays in general. Divining QuadWellsite Gas Analyzer


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