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# WEEK 3: MODELING PowerPoint PPT Presentation

WEEK 3: MODELING Modeler Concepts Modeler  a person who performs the process of creating objects with a 3D software program There are 4 basic types of modeling systems: 1. Polygonal 2. Spline 3. Patch 4. Parametric Polygonal Modelers The oldest type of 3D modeling

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WEEK 3: MODELING

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### WEEK 3: MODELING

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### Modeler Concepts

• Modeler a person who performs the process of creating objects with a 3D software program

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• There are 4 basic types of modeling systems:

1. Polygonal

2. Spline

3. Patch

4. Parametric

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### Polygonal Modelers

• The oldest type of 3D modeling

• Objects are constructed with polylines and polygons

• Very useful to create low polygon models –in games

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• It can be difficult to increase its resolution

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### Spline Modelers

• Spline  a (usually curved) line, defined by control points.

• It’s resolution-independent

• Well suited to create complex organic shapes, Example: Human faces, Alien spacecraft, Tyrannosaurs

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• It uses smooth and natural curves

• Types of splines:

1. B-spline

2. Bezier

3. NURBS

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### Patch Modelers

• Use a network of control points to define and modify the shape of the patch

• Control points  control vertices (CVs) – exert a magnet-like influence on the flexible surface of the patch, stretching and tugging it in one direction to another

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• Patches can be subdivided to allow more detail

• Can produce very smooth results

• Well suited for organic forms modeling

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### Parametric Modelers

• Spline-based (Not all spline modelers are parametric)

• Parametric modeling features objects that retain their base geometry information (default shape, current size, etc)

• This information can still be accessed and changed

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• Deformations applied to parametric objects can be adjusted any time

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### Splines

• All splines are similar; they consist of a line/shape; controlled by a polyline or polygon

• Three types: B-spline, Bezier spline, and NURBS; Each uses a unique method to control the shape of the spline

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### Editing 2D Shapes

• Easily modified; how a shape is modified depends on whether it’s polygonal or spline-based; some operations are common to both

• The basic line and polyline editing operations – moving, adding or deleting line, vertices, or edges

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### 2D Booleans

• Enable us to build onto a shape by combining it with second shape from the first or carve away at a shape by subtracting a second shape from the first

• Very useful tools;

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• Operands – shapes selected for Boolean operations

• Operations  Add, Subtract, Intersection and Split

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### Turning 2D Shapes into 3D Objects

• Extrusions pushing the 2D shape into the third dimension by giving it a Z-axis depth; useful for creating block-like object/shapes, column, panels, etc

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• Lathing used to create carved cylindrical objects; chair legs and bedposts, A lathe command spins a 2D shape around an axis and extruding it in small steps as it rotates

• Lathe  ideal for creating any kind of radial object such as reels, glass, etc

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• Sweeping/lofting A sweep: a single 2D cross-section that is extruded along path

• Sweep Types:

1. Open sweep

2. Helical sweep

3. Closed sweep

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• Skinning  similar to open sweep, but here you can use different cross-sectional shapes along the path

• It creates a surface to bridge the cross-sections

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### 3D Primitives

• Cube

• Cylinder

• Tube

• Sphere

• Torus

• Cone

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### Transforms

• Operations that alter the position, size, or orientation of an object

• Basic transforms:

1. Move

2. Rotate

3. Scale

4. Mirror

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### Deforms

• Enable you to alter primitives/other objects in subtle or dramatic ways

• Types:

1. Bend

2. Skew

3. Twist

4. Squash and Stretch

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### Duplicating Mesh

• Objects and shapes can be duplicated via several ways:

1. Copying and Instancing(use clone or copy operation)

2. Arrays (Eg. Basic linear array, Linear array with rotation, linear array with scaling)

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