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Langley City Fire & Rescue. Ground Ladders. Objectives. Meet the standards for Firefighter I as outlined in Chapter 3 NFPA 1001, 1997 Candidates be able to identify, carry, raise, climb, inspect, and maintain fire service ground ladders . Purpose. Assist in rescue Access upper levels

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Langley City Fire & Rescue

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Langley City Fire & Rescue

  • Ground Ladders


Objectives

  • Meet the standards for Firefighter I as outlined in Chapter 3 NFPA 1001, 1997

  • Candidates be able to identify, carry, raise, climb, inspect, and maintain fire service ground ladders


Purpose

  • Assist in rescue

  • Access upper levels

  • Elevate Master Streams

  • Assist in Ventilation


Parts of a Ladder

  • Beam - Main structural member of a ladder supporting the rungs

  • Bed Section - Lowest and widest section of an extension ladder.

  • Butt/Heel - Bottom end of ladder that contacts ground

  • Butt Spurs - Safety plates or spikes attached to Butt to prevent slippage


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Dogs/Locks/Pawls - Devices attached to beam on fly sections to hold fly sections in place once extended

  • Fly - Upper section of an extension ladder. Sometimes known as Top Fly or Second Fly on ladders with more than one extension.


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Footpads - Rubber or neoprene foot plates, usually of the swivel type, attached to the butt of the ladder.

  • Guides - Wood or metal strips on an extension ladder that guide the fly sections

  • Halyard - Rope or cable used in hoisting and lowering fly sections


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Heat Sensor label - Label affixed to the inside of each beam to indicate if ladder has been exposed to extreme heat. (Test Required)

  • Hooks - Curved metal devices installed on the tip end of ladders

  • Mid Section - Also known as Intermediate, Middle, or First Fly. Middle section of a Triple Extension Ladder


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Protection Plates - Strips of metal attached to ladders at chafing points e.g. tips

  • Pulley - Grooved wheel which the Halyard is drawn

  • Rails - The two lengthwise members of a trussed ladder separated by truss blocks


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Rungs - Cross members that provide a foothold for climbing

  • Stops - Wood or metal pieces that prevent fly sections from being extended too far

  • Tie Rods - Support rods running from one beam to another


Parts of a Ladder Cont.

  • Tip - Top of ladder

  • Tormentor Poles - Staypoles for added leverage and stability on ladders 40 - 50 feet.

  • Truss Blocks - Separation pieces between rails of a trussed ladder


Types of Ladders

  • Single/Wall Ladder - Consists of only one section from 6 - 32 feet (2m - 10m)

  • Roof Ladders - Single Ladder from 12 - 24 feet (4m - 8m), with folding hooks to anchor over roof ridge

  • Folding Ladders - Single ladders with hinged rungs and footpads to allow for attic or narrow space access. Normally 8 - 16 feet (2.5 -5m)


Types of Ladders Cont.

  • Extension Ladder - An adjustable length ladder with a Bed and one or more fly sections

  • Combination Ladder - Multiple use ladder - step ladder, extension, and single

  • Pompier Ladder (Scaling Ladder) - Used to climb from floor to floor via exterior windows on multi story buildings


Construction

  • Beams and Rungs form the major components of a ladder.

    • Solid Beam and Truss Beam

    • Rungs 1¼ in diameter and spaced 14” apart


Construction Material

  • Metal - Usually heat treated Aluminum alloy.

    • Advantages - Light weight, strong, allows for visual inspection, and easier to maintain

    • Disadvantages- Subject to extreme heat and cold, and conducts electricity.


Construction Material Cont.

  • Wooden - Usually Douglas Fir beams. White Ash or Hickory for rungs

    • Advantages - Cost and reasonably light weight

    • Disadvantages - Heat and direct flame damage, shrinkage over time, cracks hidden if painted, and high maintenance


Construction Material Cont.

  • Fiberglass - Usually a combination of Fiberglass beams and metal rungs

    • Advantages - Nonconductor of electricity and poor conductor of heat

    • Disadvantages - Weight, tends to chip and crack, and cost


Ladder Maintenance & Repair

  • Maintenance means keeping ladders in a state of readiness

  • Repair means to restore or replace that which has become inoperable.


Storage of Ladders (NFPA 1932)

  • Keep ground ladders free from moisture

  • Do not store or rest ladders where they are subject to exhaust or engine heat

  • Do not store ladders where they are exposed to the elements

  • Do not paint ladders except for the top and bottom 12 inches


Cleaning of Ladders (NFPA 1932)

  • To be cleaned after every use to remove dirt and debris

  • Use soft bristle brush and running water

  • Tar, oil, and grease should be removed with safety solvents

  • Wiped dry

  • During cleaning look check for defects


Inspection & Service Testing (NFPA 1931)

  • Inspected after each use and monthly

  • Rungs - snug and no cracks, gouges, or deformation

  • Bolts and Rivets - tight

  • Welds - cracks and defects

  • Beams - cracks, gouges, or deformation


Inspection & Service Testing (NFPA 1931)

  • Heat sensor label - Any metal ladder subjected to direct flame or heat high enough to cause water to steam or boil, or change the colour of the heat sensor label, MUST BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE AND TESTED


Inspection & Service Testing (NFPA 1931)

  • Wooden Ladders

    • Varnish not chafed, scraped, or darkened from heat

    • Dark streaks in wood means wood deterioration and must be removed from service


Inspection & Service Testing (NFPA 1931)

  • Roof Ladders

    • Hook assembly operates smoothly

    • Check for rust, deformations and firmly attached


Inspection & Service Testing (NFPA 1931)

  • Extension Ladders

    • Pawl assembly works. Hook and finger move freely

    • Halyard is not frayed or kinked

    • Pulleys turn freely

    • Fly sections move freely

    • Toggles move freely on stay poles


WARNING!

  • Failure to remove a defective ladder from service can result in catastrophic ladder failure that may injure or kill fellow firefighters


Ladder Safety

  • Do not overload ladder - approximately one firefighter every 8 - 10 ft

  • Always wear protective gear

  • Choose proper ladder for job

  • Lift with legs not back

  • Use correct number of firefighters for raising and lowering


Ladder Safety Cont.

  • Check for overhead electrical wires/hazards

  • Set proper climbing angle (75° or 1ft out for every 4 high)

  • Seat locks/pawls/dogs

  • Secure properly before climbing (four point contact or tie off)

  • Extend five rungs over roof


Ladder Safety Cont.

  • Climber can stand upright and reach the rungs at arms length

  • Tie off halyard before climbing

  • Climb smoothly and rhythmically (Bear climb)

  • Use leg lock or Class I harness

  • Inspect after use


Selecting Ladders

  • NFPA 1901 Pumper Ladder Requirements

    • 1 extension ladder min 24 feet (8m)

    • 1 roof ladder min 14 feet (4.3m)

    • 1 folding ladder min 10 feet ( 3m)


Selecting Ladders Cont.

  • First story roof - 16 - 20 ft (4.9 - 6m)

  • Second story window - 20 - 28 ft (6 - 8.5m)

  • Second story roof - 28 - 35 ft (8.5 - 10.7m)

  • Third story window or roof - 40 - 50 ft (12.2 - 15.2)

  • Forth story roof - over 50 ft (15.2m)


Ladder Placement

  • Extend five rungs above roof to provide footing and handhold when stepping on or off roof

  • Place tip of ladder at top of window on leeward side when ventilating or suppression

  • Place tip of ladder just below windowsill for rescue/access (may be extended into opening of a wide window)


Ladder Placement Cont.

  • Avoid placing ladders over window and door openings

  • Ladder two sides of building for safety

  • Place at strongest part of building (corners)

  • Place ladder tip over top of window when using smoke ejectors


Ladder Placement Cont.

  • Avoidoverhead obstructions such as overhangs, signs, trees, and wires

  • Avoid uneven terrain or soft spots

  • Avoid access and egress routes/paths

  • Avoid placing ladders on surfaces/openings where fire is present or may reach

  • Avoid unstable surfaces. E.g. elevator doors and manhole covers


Ground Ladders

  • Carrying/Raising/Shifting/Climbing/Rescue/Hoselines to be reviewed in practical sessions


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