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the alignment of learning and teaching using educational technology. David B Hay. King’s Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT. that explains the development of alternative. to introduce. 1. Learning Theory. 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation. 3. Cognitive Structures.

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King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the alignment of learning

and teaching using

educational technology

David B Hay

King’s Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

that explains the

development of

alternative

to

introduce

1. Learning

Theory

2. Methods of

Graphic Organisation

3. Cognitive

Structures

that can reveal

which we use

to explain

illustrated

by

4. A Model of

Teaching

5. with considerable implications for

Technology use

In HE

New Learning

Frameworks

and the design of

Constructive

Alignment

to achieve

to achieve


Learning theory

Learning Theory


Learning process and learning quality

Learning Processand Learning Quality


The learning process jarvis 1987 1985

The Learning Process Jarvis 1987, 1985


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

situation

experience

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

situation

there are 9 routes through the model

three lead to ‘the person reinforced but relatively unchanged’ and are classed as NON LEARNING

three lead through memorisation to either ‘reinforcement without change’ or to ‘the person changed’: these constitute NON REFLECTIVE LEARNING

three lead to ‘the person changed and more experienced’ and are examples of REFLECTIVE LEARNING

experience

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection


Non learning presumption non consideration and rejection

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

non-learningpresumption, non-consideration and rejection


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the person

situation

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

experience

experience

reasoning and

reflection

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

situation

experience

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection


Non reflective learning preconscious practice and memorisation

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

memorisation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

practice

evaluation

reflection

non-reflective learningpreconscious, practice and memorisation


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the person

situation

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

experience

memorisation

memorisation

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection


Reflective learning contemplation practice and experience

the person

changed

and more

experienced

the person

practice

evaluation

reflection

reflective learningcontemplation, practice and experience


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

the person

situation

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection

the person

reinforced

but relatively

unchanged

experience

memorisation

practice

experimentation

evaluation

the person

changed

and more

experienced

reasoning and

reflection


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Learning QualityMarton and otherse.g.. F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (Eds.) 1984 The experience of learning (Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press)

Entwistle, 1990; Entwistle, McCune, & Walker, 2001;

Entwistle & Tait, 1994; Entwistle, Meyer & Tait, 1991:

Marton & Säljö,1976: Marton, 1986; Säljö, 1975.


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Surface Learning

an increase in knowledge or information about a

subject acquired by gathering unrelated facts and

without integration with what is already known

KNOWLEDGE

an ability to apply new knowledge to particular

tasks and problems but without transferability

APPLICATION

an ability to recall new information but usually

only short-term

ENDURANCE


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Deep Learning

an increase in UNDERSTANDING of a subject

involving grasp of underlying principles

KNOWLEDGE

an ability to apply newly understood principles

in a variety of different contexts and situations

APPLICATION

long-lasting personal change

ENDURANCE


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

and the design of

1. Learning

Theory

that explains the

development of

alternative

to introduce

2. Methods of

Graphic Organisation

3. Cognitive

Structures

that can reveal

which we use

to explain

illustrated

by

4. A Model of

Teaching

5. with considerable implications for

Technology use

In HE

New Learning

Frameworks

Constructive

Alignment

to achieve

to achieve


Concept mapping

Concept Mapping

Novak and Colleagues

e.g. Novak & Gowan, 1986; Novak, 1998


Meaningful versus rote leaning

Meaningful versus Rote Leaning

Learners

relevant

prior knowledge

learner

chooses

meaningful

material

not to use

to use

assessed

by

selected

by

stored

in

meaningful

learning

rote

learning

meaningful

learning

produces constructive

changes in

network of

neurones

encourages

teacher

discourages


The concept mapping method

the concept mapping method

Concepts are arranged hierarchically on a page

Concepts are written in boxes and linked with directional

linking statements to form propositions

Each concept can be used only once

Each concept can be linked to as many as is desirable


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

ANIMALS

can be

INVERTEBRATE

VERTEBRATE

M

O

R

E

S

P

E

C

I

F

I

C

mostly

can be

are

COLDBLOODED

WARMBLOODED

ARTHROPODS

can be

insulated with

TERRESTRIAL

MARINE

FUR

FEATHERS

e.g. crabs, lobsters

e.g. sheep,cats

e.g. robins, penguins

e.g. beetles,flies


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

key

concept

link

general

concept

general

concept

general

concept

link

link

concept

concept

link

link

link

example

event

link

example

event

link

link

less general

concept

less general

concept

concept

concept

cross link

link

link

link

example

example

specific

concept

specific

concept

specific

concept

object

object

cross link

Novak’s scoring system


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

9

8

14

18


Reducing rich data to a number

= 4/10

= 5/10

= 8/10

= 7/10

= 6/10

= 9/10

Reducing rich data to a number

= 6.5/10


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Constructive

Alignment

to achieve

to achieve

1. Learning

Theory

that explains the

development of

alternative

to introduce

2. Methods of

Graphic Organisation

3. Cognitive

Structures

that can reveal

which we use

to explain

illustrated

by

4. A Model

of Teaching

5. with considerable implications for

New Learning

Frameworks

Technology use

In HE

and the design of


A qualitative approach to concept map analysis kinchin hay and colleagues

a qualitative approach toconcept map analysisKinchin, Hay and colleagues

Kinchin, Hay & Adams, 2000


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

invade

CELLS

causing

DISEASES

such as

MEASLES

ANTIBIOTICS

only kill

BACTERIA

A

smaller than

VIRUSES

B

VIRUSES

invade

BACTERIA

CELLS

unaffected by

cause

ANTIBIOTICS

cause

DISEASES

MEASLES

C

DISEASES

caused by

caused by

smaller than

not treatable with

VIRUSES

BACTERIA

invade

not killed by

killed by

cause

MEASLES

CELLS

ANTIBIOTICS

work

outside


Student maps comprise three basic structures

student maps comprise three basic structures


Expert teacher maps are network structures

expert (teacher maps) are network structures

lesson plans however, tend to be chains


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

A

B

SPOKES

CHAINS

are

are

CHANGIBLE

are

NON-LINEAR

have no

indicate

are

LINEAR

CROSS-LINKS

LEARNING

READINESS

so

SIMPLE

CHANGE

C

is

NETWORKS

comprise

DIFFICULT

indicate

EXPERTIESE

COMPLEXITY

is indicative of

because

justified by

sub-subsumes

RESTRUCTURE

which is

requires

ARGUMENT

CONTRADICTION

STABLE

ameliorated

through

COLLAPSE


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

A

E

E

C

C

B

C

A

A

D

E

B

B

D

D

E

C

A

B

D

CONVENTIONAL

TEACHING SEQUENCE

EXPERT STRUCTURE

PR

STUDENT

NON-ENGAGEMENT

(memorization)

STUDENT RECONSTRUCTION


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

ROTE LEARNING

EXPERT

LECTURE

VIRUSES

VIRUSES

invade

invade

CELLS

CELLS

causing

causing

DISEASES

DISEASES

such as

such as

MEANING MAKER

MEASLES

MEASLES

not treatable with

not treatable with

LEARNING READY

ANTIBIOTICS

ANTIBIOTICS

VIRUSES

smaller than

invade

only kill

only kill

CELLS

BACTERIA

cause

unaffected by

BACTERIA

BACTERIA

cause

DISEASES

ANTIBIOTICS

MEASLES

DISEASES

DISEASES

DISEASES

caused by

caused by

VIRUSES

BACTERIA

caused by

caused by

caused by

caused by

MEASLES

CELLS

ANTIBIOTICS

VIRUSES

VIRUSES

smaller than

smaller than

BACTERIA

BACTERIA

cause

cause

invade

invade

not killed by

not killed by

killed by

killed by

MEASLES

MEASLES

CELLS

CELLS

ANTIBIOTICS

ANTIBIOTICS

work

outside

work

outside


Using concept mapping

using concept mapping

  • knowledge and understanding become graphic representations

  • change (that is indicative of learning) becomes measurable in quality terms

  • and the consequences of different teaching strategies are observable


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Constructive

Alignment

to achieve

to achieve

1. Learning

Theory

that explains the

development of

alternative

to introduce

2. Methods of

Graphic Organisation

3. Cognitive

Structures

that can reveal

which we use

to explain

illustrated

by

4. A Model

of Teaching

5. with considerable implications for

New Learning

Frameworks

Technology use

In HE

and the design of


If the approach is valid

if the approach is valid

  • then some of the predicted outcomes of learning should be measurable

  • deep versus surface learning (Marton)

  • learning versus non learning (Jarvis)

  • meaningful versus rote learning (Novak)


Deep surface and non learning are observable phenomena

deep, surface and non-learningare observable phenomena

Studies

in Higher

Education

David B Hay (2007) Using concept maps

to measure deep, surface and non-

learning outcomes. Studies in Higher

Education, 32 (1) due for publication Feb 2007

S

R

H

E


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

retained concepts

newly added concepts


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

newly added

concept

never

incorporated

basic knowledge structure

remains unchanged = non learning

new knowledge added

superficially = surface learning

old concepts

now rejected


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

non – learning and surface learning are

observable phenomena – but so to is

deep (or meaningful) learning


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

meaningful learning

old links broken

old concepts rejected

new concepts added

new links forged

between old and new


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

x

EXPERT

NON-LEARNER

NO INTERACTION

non learning

SURFACE LEARNER

EXPERT

TRIVIAL INTERACTION

based on undue repetition

of transmission signal

surface learning

MEANINGFUL LEARNER

EXPERT

MEANINGFUL INTERACTION

meaningful learning

based on meaningful

sharing of cognitive

structures


Concept mapping can be used to measure learning quality

concept mapping can be used to measure learning quality

but it also provides a framework for the constructive alignment of teaching and learning


This is because concept mapping can also

this is because concept mapping can also:

facilitate sharing of understanding of the rich and complex knowledge structures that belie prescriptive lesson plans


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Constructive

Alignment

to achieve

to achieve

1. Learning

Theory

that explains the

development of

alternative

to introduce

2. Methods of

Graphic Organisation

3. Cognitive

Structures

that can reveal

which we use

to explain

illustrated

by

4. A Model

of Teaching

5. with considerable implications for

New Learning

Frameworks

Technology use

In HE

and the design of


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

conventional lesson plans, lectures, practicals

and other formal or organised learning activities

tend towards linearity

this promotes a surface approach to learning that

is commonly unwarranted


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

often the student who follows the lecture route is ignorant of any other route through the over-arching knowledge structure


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

in fact many different routes exist and the knowledge and understanding developed by an awareness of these routes is not to be foregone if the novice is to become and expert


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

Earl’s Court

Holborn


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

furthermore, expert status is only really attained when the learner comes to be able to locate what they know and understand in a broader context


Meaningful teaching

meaningful teaching

is the art of selecting appropriate routes

through complex networks of expert understanding


Meaningful learning

meaningful learning

is the art of navigation through chains of

expression in order to discover underlying

networks of understanding


Concept mapping1

concept mapping

allows the knowledge and understanding of experts to be organised in systematic ways that permit the designation of learning routes through rich and complex subject networks


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

students can follow these routes

and explore new routes for themselves

when they do so they will be able to choose to

learn in ways that are strategically appropriate


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

this is a justified approach grounded in research and in the principles of constructive alignmentit aims to balance the goals of self-directed and student centred learning with the traditions of didactic and expert led teaching in higher education


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

The approach has application in all areas of teaching and learning but it is likely to have particular impact in the design and development of educational technology


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

we would argue that to date there is no such thing as a pedagogy of e-learning, but that when lecturers are provided with concept mapping tools for organising knowledge and information and for developing routes of learning through these networks then e-learning will have pedagogy


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

far from replacing the lecturer, educational technology will re-asserting the central role ofthe academic expert as author of meaningful learning experiences and as the agent of support for student progressiontowards expert status

David B Hay and Ian M Kinchin


King s institute of learning and teaching kilt

quality of

learning

expert

(teacher)

maps

plans

cognitive

network

learning

routes

when they themselves become the

through

chooses

In order to

develop

own

students

CONCEPT MAPS


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