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JM602. Summary. Consumer behaviour & marketing strategy. Successful marketing strategies require a thorough understanding of consumer behaviour Basis for many marketing strategies: Product positioning Market segmentation New product development New market applications Global marketing

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jm602

JM602

Summary

consumer behaviour marketing strategy
Consumer behaviour & marketing strategy
  • Successful marketing strategies require a thorough understanding of consumer behaviour
  • Basis for many marketing strategies:
    • Product positioning
    • Market segmentation
    • New product development
    • New market applications
    • Global marketing
    • Marketing mix decisions
    • Marketing regulation
consumer decision process situational i nfluences
Consumer decision processSituational Influences
  • All behaviour takes place within the context of a certain situation. Therefore, behaviour will not only vary between consumers but the same consumer will exhibit different behaviours from one situation to the next.
situational influence
Situational influence
  • Types of situations
    • Communication situation
    • Purchase situation
    • Usage situation
    • Disposal situation
  • Classes of situational influence
    • Physical surroundings
    • Social surroundings
    • Temporal perspective
    • Task definition
    • Antecedent states
problem recognition
Problem recognition
  • Discrepancy between actual & desired state
    • Size of discrepancy & magnitude of importance
  • Habitual, limited and extended decision making
  • Controllable & uncontrollable factors
  • Marketing implications:
    • Responding to problems (generic or selective)
    • Triggering problem recognition
    • Influence timing of problem recognition
    • Suppress problem recognition
information search
Information Search
  • Internal & external search
  • Type of information sought:
    • Evaluative criteria
    • Appropriate alternatives: awareness set, evoked set, inert set, inept set
  • Sources of information
    • Memories of past searches, low involvement learning
    • Personal sources
    • Independent sources
    • Marketing sources
    • Experiential sources
  • Amount of information search:
    • Cost verses the benefits
  • Marketing strategies based on information search patterns
evaluating selecting alternatives
Evaluating & selecting alternatives
  • Nature of evaluative criteria:
    • performance levels or characteristics
  • Accuracy of consumer judgements:
    • Use of surrogate indicators
  • Decision rules:
    • Disjunctive, conjunctive, lexicographic, elimination-by-aspects & compensatory rules
  • Marketing strategy:
    • Type of criteria used, perception of various alternatives, relative importance of each criterion
    • Decision rules
store choice and purchase
Store choice and purchase
  • Factors affecting retail outlet selection
    • Store image, type and amount of retail advertising, outlet location, outlet size
  • Shopping orientations of consumers
    • Affects outlet selection
  • In-store influences
    • Pop displays, price reduction, store layout, sales personnel, product stock-outs
  • Decision sequence
    • Marketers seek to influence in-store purchases
post purchase processes
Post purchase processes
  • Postpurchase process
    • Dissonance, usage & disposal
  • Post purchase dissonance
  • Product use:
    • Importance for customer satisfaction, product development, compliance with product liability laws
  • Product disposal
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Customer loyalty
perception
Perception
  • Nature of perception
    • Activities by which individuals acquire and assign meaning to stimuli (information processing)
  • Exposure, Attention, Interpretation
    • Stimulus factors
    • Individual factors
    • Situational factors
  • Marketing strategy:
    • Media strategy
    • Retail outlets
    • Packaging
    • Advertising
    • Selecting brand names
learning and memory
Learning and memory
  • High and low involvement learning situations
  • Conditioning:
    • Classical & operant
  • Cognitive learning
    • Iconic rote, vicarious learning, reasoning
general characteristics of learning
General characteristics of learning
  • Strength of learning:
    • Importance, message involvement, mood, reinforcement, repetition, imagery
  • Extinction
  • Stimulus generalisation
  • Stimulus discrimination
  • Response environment
  • Memory:
    • Short and long term memory
marketing applications of memory and learning
Marketing applications of memory and learning
  • Brand image
  • Product positioning
  • Product repositioning
  • Brand equity and brand leverage
motivation personality and emotion
Motivation, personality and emotion
  • Nature of motivation:
    • Energising forces that activate behaviour
  • Theories of motivation
      • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
      • McGuire’s psychological motives
  • Appealing to motives:
    • Manifest and latent motives
    • Motivational conflict
  • Personality & brand personality
  • Emotions
attitude attitudinal change
Attitude & Attitudinal change
  • Attitudes
  • Components of attitude
    • Cognitive, affective and behavioural
  • Attitudinal change strategies:
    • Affective component
      • Classical conditioning, affect towards the advertisement, mere exposure
    • Behavioural component:
      • Operant conditioning
    • Cognitive component:
      • Changing beliefs, shifting importance, adding belief, changing the ideal
attitudinal change
Attitudinal change
  • Communication characteristics affecting attitudinal change:
    • Source characteristics
    • Appeal characteristics
    • Message structure characteristics
  • Marketing strategy:
    • Market segmentation
    • Product development
demographics
Demographics
  • Size, structure and distribution of the population
  • Demographic trends are important considerations for marketers
  • Subcultures
  • Changing gender roles
  • Nature of lifestyle
  • Psychographics
household structure
Household structure
  • Types of households (family/non family)
  • Household life cycle
  • Household decision making:
    • Information gatherer, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, user
  • Current and future trends in household consumption
    • Computers & video games, purchase of services, pets
group influence communication
Group influence & communication
  • Types of groups
    • Reference groups
    • Aspirational reference groups
  • Types of reference group influence:
    • Informational
    • Normative
    • Identification
  • Degree of reference group influence:
    • Visibility, degree needed
  • Marketing strategy:
    • Personal selling strategies
    • Advertising
groups communication
Groups & communication
  • Opinion leadership
  • Innovation
  • Marketing strategies and the diffusion process:
    • Segmentation
    • Diffusion-enhancement strategies
social class
Social class
  • Concept of social class
  • Status crystallisation
    • occupation, income, education, ownership
  • Social class structure:
    • Functional approach
    • Reputational approach
  • Measurement of social class
    • Single index/multiple index measures
  • Marketing strategy
    • advertising
slide25
Exam
  • 3 sections
    • A: one compulsory question
    • B: answer 3 out of 4 mid length responses
    • C: case study – answer both questions