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Introduction Background and Marketing – Ben Kuhlman Robot – Troy Wohlfert Global Positioning System – Laura O’Rear LADAR – Stephen Sherman System Design – Matt Knollman Navigation and Control – Alex Hain Markets for Our Product One-Third of all military vehicles by 2015

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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Background and Marketing – Ben Kuhlman

  • Robot – Troy Wohlfert

  • Global Positioning System – Laura O’Rear

  • LADAR – Stephen Sherman

  • System Design – Matt Knollman

  • Navigation and Control – Alex Hain


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Markets for Our Product

  • One-Third of all military vehicles by 2015

    • Current Military Applications

    • Future Applications

      • Detection, Heavy Combat, Monitoring

  • Possible Civilian Applications

    • Agriculture, Materials Handling, Mass Transportation, Automobile enhancement


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Robotics Development

  • Current Civilian Applications

    • AGVs, Robotic Arms, Smart Appliances.

    • Automated Highway Systems Disappointment

      • National Automated Highway System Consortium

  • Challenges for the Future of Robotics


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DarpaDefense Advanced Research Project Agency

  • Department of Defense

    • Armed forces a decisive edge

  • Grand Challenge

    • Race between Barstow and Las Vegas

    • $1 Million Prize

    • Rough Terrain

      • fencing

      • water

      • bushes


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ATRV-2

  • Manufactured by IRobot

    • Off-Road capabilities

    • 220 lbs load capacity

    • 2 m/s maximum speed

  • Application for Darpa


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Global Positioning System (GPS)

  • How GPS Works:

    • 24 satellites broadcast on two frequencies:

      • L1 (1575.42 MHz), C/A code and P(Y) code

      • L2 (1227.60 MHz), P(Y) code

    • P(Y) code

    • C/A code

      • Pseudo-random Noise

      • Contains almanac of satellite (SV) positions

      • Contains ephemeris, SV position corrections

    • Distance (from SV) = Velocity x Time

      • Velocity is approx. the speed of light 3.0*108 m/sec

      • Time is the delay needed to match pseudo-code

    • Trilateration (for position calculation)

      • Requires min. of 4 satellites

      • Four equations with four unknowns

www.garmin.com


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NovAtel Propak-LB-L1/L2 Receiver

10 cm level accuracy, 10 Hz

30 ~ 50 sec acquire time

3.7 Watts, 7 to 15 V DC input

Output

3 RS-232 serial

PPS (pulse per second)

Rugged design

NovAtel GPS-600-LB Antenna

Tracks SVs up to 15° below horizon

GPS Application


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LADAR

LAser Detection And Ranging

How it works

]


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LADAR

  • Our Model: Sick LMS 30206

  • Specs

    • Range: 80m

    • Angular Resolution: .25o, .5o, 1o (selectable)

    • Image Resolution: 10mm

    • large power consumption (20~140 W)

  • Placement

    • Front center of ATRV angled Downward


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System Overview

  • Sensor System Tasks

  • Data acquisition

  • Signal processing / Filtering

  • Map generation

  • Control System Tasks

  • Path planning

  • Integration of high and low-level sensor data

  • Motor control


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Computer Hardware

Sensor Computer

  • EPIA PD 1000

    • 1 GHz Via C3 CPU

    • 4 serial ports

    • Dual Ethernet ports

    • Small 17cm x 17cm footprint

      Power Supply

  • DC-DC converter

    • 80 Watt output

    • Wide input voltage range (11-30V)

      Storage

  • 512MB Compact Flash card


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Software

Linux OS

  • Free (GPL)

  • Scalable and very powerful

    Sensor Software

  • Use existing API to interface with LADAR

  • Generate virtual map of environment

  • Client / Server architecture

    Control Software

  • Integrate data from LADAR and GPS

  • Identify obstacles

  • Generate driving path

  • Use existing API to interface with ATRV-II

    GUI (Display Software)

  • Relay robot position and LADAR map to user

  • Use Mobility Robot Integration API

  • Communicate with vehicle via wireless Ethernet link


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Navigation and Tracking

GPS used for broad view

LADAR used for immediate area

Brute force used when GPS fails



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Conclusion

  • ATRV-2 test platform

  • GPS is used for accurate positioning

  • LADAR is used for object avoidance

  • Use of multiple computer systems mimics actual DARPA vehicle

  • Robust and accurate control system

  • Simple AI, reduced complication



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