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Fossil Fuels Ch 13 Montgomery PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Fossil Fuels Ch 13 Montgomery 1. Which of the following contributes directly to the saltiness of the ocean? A. Bed load of rivers B. Dissolved load of rivers C. suspended load of rivers D. none of the above PiedmontrainMiss. R.ocean Ca 2+ 160.742 400

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Fossil Fuels Ch 13 Montgomery

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Fossil fuels ch 13 montgomery l.jpg

Fossil FuelsCh 13 Montgomery


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1. Which of the following contributes directly to the saltiness of the ocean?

A. Bed load of rivers

B. Dissolved load of rivers

C. suspended load of rivers

D. none of the above


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PiedmontrainMiss. R.ocean

Ca 2+160.742 400

Mg 2+ 3.40.112 1350

Na+260.62510500

K+ 2.10.1 2.9 380

Cl-380.63019000

SO42-132.256 2700

HCO3-540.1132 142

NO3-0.6 2.4 0.5

Data from Montgomery & Railsback


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Both rivers have

Dissolved loads

In the form of

ions

2. Which is the greatest reservoir of freshwater?

A. lakes

b. streams

c. ice

d. groundwater


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2. Which is the greatest reservoir of freshwater?

A. lakes

b. streams

c. ice

d. groundwater


Hydrologic cycle note importance of groundwater and ice reservoirs and of course the ocean l.jpg

Hydrologic cycle…note importance of groundwater and icereservoirs…and of course the ocean


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7. When sea water evaporates, the 18O/16O ratio of the water vapor is

A. higher than that of the seawater

B. the same as that of the seawater

C. lower that that of the seawater

D. Depends on salinity of seawater


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9. Evidence from _______________ can be used to infer the composition of the atmosphere in the past

A. oxygen isotope ratio of ice in the Greenland ice cap

B. air bubbles trapped in the Greenland ice cap

C. oxgen isotope ratio shells in deep sea sediments

D. all of the above

Snow and rain are lighter, have less 18O than the water they form from


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Ice cores give annual records

(light layers = summer, dust

Rich layers)…air bubbles

Trapped in ice gives

Atmospheric composition


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Here is record for for an Antarctic

Core Key observations?


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  • 12. Since the onset of the Industrial Age, CO2 in the atmosphere has

  • A. increased to about 100 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration

  • B. increased to about 10 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration

  • C. increased to about 1.3 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration

  • D. we think it has increased but we don’t know by how much


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Thus,

Higher CO2 = higher air

temperatures

  • -


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18. The Mississippi River hypoxic zone refers to

A. an area of low oxygen in bottom water in the river

B. an area of low oxygen in bottom water in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to

the Mississippi River delta

C. an area of low oxygen throughout the water column in the

Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River delta

D. all of the above


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Mississippi River hypoxia (dissolved oxygen , 2 mg/L)


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19. The Mississippi River hypoxic zone is caused by

A. industrial chemicals associated with the port of New Orleans

B. seepage of oxygen-free gases such as methane from the ocean floor

and/or riverbed

C. fertilizer application to fields in the drainage basin of the Mississippi River

D. all of the above


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N and P input correlate with

Agricultural intensity


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  • Algae blooms and blooms of other aquatic vegetation can be stimulated by

  • introduction of nutrients in lakes and streams…these blooms cause

  • oxygen depletion in the lakes because

  • A. the algae use up the available oxygen

  • B. when they die, the decay process uses up oxygen

  • C. the bloom covers the water’s surface and doesn’t

  • allow oxygen to enter the water from the atmosphere

  • D. none of the above


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What happens when ;you add

Nutrients….things grow


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Hypoxia =

Deficiency

Of oxygen

Reaching

Living tissues


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  • A tragedy such as the Woburn MA childhood leukemia

  • outbreak is less likely to happen now because

  • A. The Safe Drinking Water Act requires municpalities to monitor the quality

  • and contaminants in municipal drinking water

  • B. The Clean Water Act monitors and restricts pollultion of groundwater

  • C. The Clean Water Act monitors and restricts pollution of surface, navigable waters

  • D. all of the above


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Contaminants

Move as

Part of

A “plume”


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23. Which of the following is the least robust indicator of climate warming

A. the rise of sea level

B. the retreat of alpine glaciers

C. the unusually high number record high temperatures in Georgia last summer

D. All of these indicators are equally robust


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Today: air temperature

Appears to be rising

10 hottest years on record

Are red


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26. If you evaporate a liter of seawater which mineral does not form by evaporation?

A. halite, NaCl

B. gypsum, CaSO4

C. calcite, CaCO3

D. All of the above form by evaporation


Salinity if you evaporate seawater you get calcite then gypsum caso 4 then salt then sylvite kcl l.jpg

Salinity…if you evaporate seawater you get calcite then gypsum (CaSO4), then salt, then sylvite, KCl


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30. An example of a feedback mechanism in climate behavior includes:

A. increased heating of the soils on top of Kilamanjaro due to the recession of the ice cap

B. increased heating of the Arctic Ocean due to melting of sea ice

C. increased cloud cover due to increased evaporation of the oceans

D. all of the above


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Northern ice cap…to the right

Snow cover 1979 versus 2003


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