chapter 11 prisons and jails
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Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails

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Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails. Learning Objectives. Discuss the major characteristics and purpose of today’s prisons Describe the prison population in America today Describe the just deserts model

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the major characteristics and purpose of today’s prisons
  • Describe the prison population in America today
  • Describe the just deserts model
  • Discuss how the changes in the rate of criminal offending relate to the changes in the rate of imprisonment
  • Explain the role that jail plays in American corrections
  • Describe the trend toward privatization in the corrections field
  • Prisons are:
  • There are 1,325 state prisons and 92 federal prisons in the United States.
    • Inmate population totals 1,470,045.
  • Hear author discuss the chapter.

A state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement.

  • The typical prison system in relatively populous states consists of:
    • One high-security prison for long-term, high-risk offenders.
    • One or more medium-security institutions.
    • One institution for adult women.
  • The typical prison system in relatively populous states consists of:
    • One or two institutions for young adults.
    • One or two specialized mental hospital-type security prisons for mentally ill prisoners.
    • One or more open-type institutions for low-risk, nonviolent inmates.
the philosophy of imprisonment
The Philosophy of Imprisonment
  • Prisons were originally built for the purpose of rehabilitation and as an alternative to corporal punishment of earlier times.
  • Today, a contemporary model of imprisonment based on the principle of just deserts is referred to as the justice model.
  • The dimensions of overcrowding
    • Space available per inmate
    • How long inmates are confined in cells or housing units
    • Living arrangements
    • Type of housing
  • Prison capacity refers to:
  • Three types of prison capacity:
    • Rated capacity: The number of inmates a prison can handle according to the judgment of experts.
    • Operational capacity: The number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based on management considerations.
    • Design capacity: The number of inmates a prison was intended to hold when it was built or modified.

The size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold.

  • Courts should assess the overall quality of prison life while viewing overcrowded conditions in combination with:
    • The prison’s meeting of basic human needs.
    • The adequacy of the facility’s staff.
    • The program opportunities available to inmates.
    • The quality and strength of the prison management.
selective incapacitation
Selective Incapacitation
  • Selective incapacitation seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals, with the goal of removing them from society.
    • This strategy is concerned with recidivism, or repetition of criminal behavior.
    • Career offender statutes focus on dangerous repeat offenders.
security levels
Security Levels
  • Maximum-security prisons
    • Provide a high level of security characterized by high fences, thick walls, secure cells, gun towers, and armed prison guards.
  • Medium-security prisons
    • Resemble maximum security prisons.
    • Inmates have more freedom to associate with one another.
security levels1
Security Levels
  • Minimum-security prisons
    • Inmates are generally housed in dormitory-like settings and are free to walk the yard and visit most prison facilities.
    • Guards are unarmed.
  • Web Extra 11-1
federal prison system
Federal Prison System
  • Five security levels
    • Administrative maximum (ADMAX)
    • High security
    • Medium security
    • Low security
    • Minimum security
  • Web Extra 11-2
  • Library Extras 11-2 and 11-3
  • Jail is:
  • Library Extra 11-4

A confinement facility administered by an agency of local government, typically a law enforcement agency, intended for adults but sometimes also containing juveniles, which holds people detained pending adjudication or committed after adjudication, usually those sentenced to a year or less.

purposes of jails
Purposes of Jails
  • Hold inmates sentenced to short terms.
  • Receive individuals pending arraignment and to await trial, conviction, or sentencing.
  • Readmit probation, parole, and bail-bond violators and absconders.
  • Temporarily detain juveniles, the mentally ill, and others pending transfer to appropriate facilities.
purposes of jails1
Purposes of Jails
  • Hold individuals for the military, for protective custody, for contempt, and for the courts as witnesses.
  • House inmates for other facilities due to transfer or overcrowding.
  • Operate community-based programs with day reporting, home detention, electronic monitoring, or other types of supervision.
  • Library Extra 11-4
women and jail
Women and Jail
  • 12% of the country’s jail population
  • Largest growth group nationwide
  • Special problems:
    • Low educational levels
    • Drug abuse
    • Pregnancy and motherhood
    • Medical needs, such as obstetrical and gynecological
the growth of jails
The Growth of Jails
  • Major reasons for jail overcrowding:
    • Some states have begun to use jails instead of prisons to house convicted felons.
    • Many indigent defendants cannot post bond.
    • There are unnecessary delays between arrest and final case disposition.
    • There are inappropriate attorney delays.
  • Library Extra 11-5
direct supervision jails
Direct Supervision Jails
  • Direct-supervision jail refers to:
  • Physical barriers are far less common than in traditional jails, allowing staff members the opportunity for greater interaction with, and control over, residents.

A temporary confinement facility that eliminates many of the traditional barriers between inmates and correctional staff.

jails and the future
Jails and the Future
  • National efforts are underway to improve the quality of jail life.
  • Only 32 states have set standards for municipal and county jails.
    • Jail standards identify basic minimum conditions necessary for inmate health and safety.
  • Web Extra 11-3
private prisons
Private Prisons
  • The movement toward the wider use of private prison has been termed privatization.
  • Many advocates argue that privatization can provide state-of-the-art facilities and programs that the government cannot pay for.
  • Opponents argue that private prisons are driven by financial incentives.
  • Library Extra 11-6
  • Web Extra 11-4