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Behavioral Observation Data for Individual Intervention Decision Making. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov 18, 2010 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis. org. PURPOSE

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Behavioral observation data for individual intervention decision making l.jpg

Behavioral Observation Data for Individual Intervention Decision Making

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

Center for Behavioral Education & Research

University of Connecticut

Nov 18, 2010

www.pbis.orgwww.cber.orgwww.swis.org


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PURPOSE Decision Making

Provide overview of how observationally-based data can be used to guide intervention decisions for individual behavior management planning.

  • Foundations

  • Behavioral Data: Function-based Support

  • Examples



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Foundations Decision Making


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Behaviorism Decision Making

SWPBS Conceptual Foundations

Laws of Behavior

ABA

Applied Behavioral Technology

PBS

Social Validity

SWPBS

All Students



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RtI Decision Making


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SWPBS Decision Makingis


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Integrated Decision Making

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

15

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


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Tertiary Prevention: Decision Making

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

23

ALL

~80% of Students


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23 Decision Making

RTI

Continuum of Support for ALL

Few

Some

All

Dec 7, 2007


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Continuum Decision Makingof Support for ALL

Math

Science

Spanish

Reading

Soc skills

Soc Studies

Basketball

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007


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RTI Decision Making

Continuum of Support for ALL

Anger man.

Prob Sol.

Ind. play

Adult rel.

Attend.

Coop play

Peer interac

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007


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ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS Decision Making

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • Function-based support

  • Wraparound

  • Person-centered planning

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • Check in/out

  • Targeted social skills instruction

  • Peer-based supports

  • Social skills club

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • Teach SW expectations

  • Proactive SW & classroom discipline

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Effective instruction

  • Parent engagement

  • Active supervision

~80% of Students


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23 Decision Making

Continuous progress monitoring of some

Universal Screening of All


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Good Data Systems Decision Making


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4 Main Data Concerns Decision Making



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Non-examples Decision Making of Function-Based approach


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Only 2 Basic Functions Decision Making

Neg Reinf

Pos Reinf

Existing aversive condition identified



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6 Decision Making


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5 Decision Making

What is basic behavior unit of behavioral observation?

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Observ. action & response class

Infrequent event/ condition affecting main. conseq.

Events signal conseq. likely if behavior emitted

Events following behavior & increase probability

  • “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed

  • Represents basic working unit of FBA

  • Directly guides development of BIP

TE = Functional Relationship when describing a predictable & verifiable relationship among 4 elements


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Testable Hypothesis Decision Making

“Basic Unit”

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq.

Following events that maintain behaviors of concern

Preceding events that trigger or occasion

Set of related behaviors of concern


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When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.

Avoid difficult tasks

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Sequoia makes

negative self-

statements &

writes profane

language

Teacher sends

Sequoia to

office for being

disrespectful

Misses 12:30

medication

Teachers

make

multiple

task demands


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Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.

Escape adult &

peer attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Caesar is

teased several

times about his

hair by his

friends before

class

His teacher

stares at his

hair in class

Caesar asks

his teacher

what she’s

staring at

His teacher

sends him to

in-school

detention


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Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day.

Escape peer attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

New student

Student

approaches &

speaks in

English

Cleo turns

away

Other

student walks

away


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When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment.

Access peer &

adult attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Teacher asks

what capitol

city of country

is

Napoleon

give correct

answer

Teacher gives

verbal praise

& time to work

with a friend

None


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As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Access OR escape

peer attention?

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

How do you know?

Assess?

How do you know?

Look at him.

“What’s up!”

“Who ya

lookin’ at?”

“Ya want

Some?” “Ya

talkin’ to me?

Kids shake

heads &

call him

“weirdo”

??


Th1 for hillary when hillary sits next to bill hillary whispers in his ear bill laughs l.jpg
TH1 “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”for Hillary:"When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs."

  • Test manipulation?

    • Put Al in Bill’s seat.

  • Effect:

    • Hillary whispers in Al’s ear.

  • Develop new testable hypothesis!


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TH2 “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”:“When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.”

  • Test manipulation?

    • Put Monica in Bill’s seat.

  • Effect:

    • Hillary does not whisper.

  • Use info to develop intervention


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Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

  • Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has2 response classesthat interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Setting Event

Antecedent Event

Antecedent Event

Behavior

Behavior

Consequence Event

Consequence Event

None

None

Peers play game & have conflict.

Teacher presents multiple step request.

Verbal protest, non-compliance, foot stomping.

Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks.

Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension.

Peers stop playing with Kirsten.

Get adult attention

  • Implication!

  • 2 intervention variations

Escape peer social


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Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

  • Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors (1 response class). They developed following two testable hypotheses:


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Setting Event

Antecedent Event

Antecedent Event

Behavior

Behavior

Consequence Event

Consequence Event

None

None

Teachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work.

Peers try to engage Amy in con-versations.

Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head.

Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head.

Peers move away.

Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words.

Avoid peer attention

  • Implication!

  • 2 intervention variations

Get adult social


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Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____ Date: ____January 11___________

Interviewer: ___________Sugai________ Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____

STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school.

C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum.

STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors

___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury

Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.


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STEP 4: Routine Analysis “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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When has FBA been done? “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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Desired “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Summary Statement

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Acceptable

Alternative


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Summary Statement “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Points,

grades,

questions,

more work.

Do work

w/o

complaints.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Avoid task,

remove from

class.

Noncompliance,

profanity,

physical

aggression,

Lack of peer

contact in 30

minutes.

Do difficult

math

assignment.

Function

Acceptable

Alternative

Why is function important?

Ask for

break,

ask for

help.

Because consequences

compete!!


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Desired “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Summary Statement

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Acceptable

Alternative


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

ADD consequence events that maintain & support desired behavior AND REMOVE consequence events that maintain problem behavior

ADD antecedent events that trigger desired behavior AND REMOVE antecedent events that trigger problem behavior

Neutralize, prevent, remove, minimize, or precorrect for influence of setting events

TEACH alternative & desired behavior that is more effective, efficient, & relevant than problem behavior


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Summary Statement “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Points,

grades,

questions,

more work.

Do work

w/o

complaints.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Noncompliance,

profanity,

physical

aggression,

Lack of peer

contact in 30

minutes.

Do difficult

math

assignment.

Avoid task,

remove from

class.

Acceptable

Alternative

Ask for

break,

ask for

help.


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

Immediately reinforce entering class.

Provide reinforcerw/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes)

Give break & help

Sit with preferred peer when done

Arrange for peer interaction before math class

Provide positive adult contact

Sit with preferred peer

Introduce review type problem before difficult tasks

Remind of alternative behaviors

Do first problem together

Teach options to problem behavior:

1. Ask for break

2. Ask for help

3. Turn in assignment as is.

Teach missing math skills


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Summary Statement “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Ignore &

problem

solve

later

Delayed

teacher

attention.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Profanity

Verbal

protests

Rides city

bus

Teacher

corrects

peers

Teacher

attention

Function

Acceptable

Alternative

Why is function important?

Discuss

in

private

Because consequences

compete!!


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Setting Event “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

When J. engages in problem behavior immediately disengage from him, & engage peers.

When J. engages in replacement behaviors provide adult attention (discussion)

On days city bus ridden, check in with counselor to review days schedule & walk with counselor to classroom

Give >3 positive acknow-ledgements per min. to peers during transitions.

Give private & quiet corrections to peers.

Remind J. of acceptable & desired replacement behaviors

Teach J. how, when, & where to express verbal protest, & how to walk away from problem situations in transitions.


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FBA-BIP Team Process “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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Process Guidelines “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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Behavior Support Elements “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

* Response class

* Routine analysis

* Hypothesis statement

* Alternative behaviors

* Competing behavior analysis

* Contextual fit

* Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes

* Evidence-based interventions

Problem Behavior

Functional Assessment

* Implementation support

* Data plan

  • Team-based

  • Behavior competence

Intervention & Support Plan

* Continuous improvement

* Sustainability plan

Fidelity of Implementation

Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle


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PBIS Prevention Goals & Bullying Behavior “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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Big Ideas “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”


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