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Coercion - Armed Force to ensure that have-nots fulfill obligations - Elites dependant on support of foreign power - Power only shared across class lines when those below show organization and potential use of force. Hegemony - Ideology: changes over time. Bases of Inequality.

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Bases of Inequality

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Coercion

- Armed Force to ensure that have-nots fulfill obligations

- Elites dependant on support of foreign power

- Power only shared across class lines when those below show organization and potential use of force

Hegemony

- Ideology: changes over time

Bases of Inequality


Participants at Independence


New Groups gain Participation

  • 1. Late 19th: Commercial Sector Associated with Export and Import

  • 2. Early 20th: Industrial Elites and Middle Classes

  • 3. 1920s/30s: Labor Begins Organizing (not real player in most countries until 1940s/50s)

  • 4. Peasants (slowest to achieve participation)


Becoming a Participant

  • Military Faction (by seizing garrisons)

  • Peasants (by seizing land)

  • Student group (demonstrating ability to turn out numbers for march)

  • Political Party (getting votes)


Today’s Actors


Arenas and “Weapons” of Political Action

  • 1. Least Developed: Private Arena of family pressure, blackmail, contacts, bribery, graft

  • 2. Most Developed: Public Arena of elections, debates, judicial review

  • 3. Intermediate Arenas: “The Streets” – strikes, riots, demonstrations


Social Change

  • Can be stimulated by new or imported ideologies (Marxism, Liberalism, Indigenismo, Liberation Theology)

  • Can be stimulated by new actors (development agencies, immigrant labor leaders)

  • Can be stimulated by disasters (earthquakes, wars, economic collapse)


3 Main Processes

  • 1. EVOLUTION (incorporation of new actors, representing previously unrepresented social strata, without displacement of previous participants in system)

  • REVOLUTION (displacement of groups representing one or more strata from the upper reaches of social pyramid)

  • COUNTER-REVOLUTION (displacement or elimination of effective participation of groups representing strata from the base of the social pyramid)


EVOLUTION

  • Most developed in Southern Cone and Costa Rica

  • Easier to admit new groups in periods of economic expansion

  • Middle class gets access through parties; requires some support of working classes, so makes some concessions (social programs)

  • Working class participation rarer

  • Reversed in periods of economic decline


REVOLUTION

  • 2 stages of violence

  • Haiti (1804)

  • Mexico (1911)

  • Bolivia (1952)

  • Cuba (1959)

  • Nicaragua (1979)


Factors that Block Evolutionary Nonviolent Change

  • 1. Great social distance between elites and masses

  • 2. Close ties between dominant power and client state

  • 3. Physical uprooting of subject populations


Phases of Revolution

  • 1. Power Transfer

  • 2. Class Demolition and Redistribution

  • 3. Institutionalization


COUNTERREVOLUTION

  • Guatemala (1954)

  • Brazil (1964)

  • Bolivia (1964)

  • Chile (1973)

  • Uruguay (1973)

  • Argentina (1966, 1976)


Facilitating Factors for Counterrevolution

  • 1. Economic deterioriation, especially runaway inflation

  • 2. Threat to military

  • 3. Help or neutrality of dominant foreign power


Phases of Counterrevolution

  • 1. Consolidation

  • 2. Political Demobilization

  • 3. Economic Transformation

  • 4. Institutionalization

  • 5. Decompression


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