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Best Practices in Engaging Students with Diverse Learning Styles. Diane Holtzman Michael Ciocco (of Rowan University) Mary Ann Trail. Workshop Goals.

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Best practices in engaging students with diverse learning styles

Best Practices in Engaging Students with Diverse Learning Styles

Diane Holtzman

Michael Ciocco (of Rowan University)

Mary Ann Trail


Workshop goals
Workshop Goals

  • This session will present ideas for designing online courses that address students’ diverse learning styles as well as creative methods for integrating library resources such as database links and online videos.

  • Learning outcomes include:

    • Greater understanding of the importance of designing online course materials and activities that address students’ diverse learning styles.

    • Learning about the various teaching materials, library resources and methods used in online environments to engage students in learning.

    • Gaining insight about the best practices of applying online technology to support diverse learning styles.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Common goals in the online class
Common Goals in the Online Class

  • Stimulate student interest in course material

  • Use media appropriate to course content

  • Present alternative means for students to access information; content should reach students in as many ways as possible.

  • Online classes provide a sense of community and interactivity

  • Concrete content is of the utmost importance

    • even when interactive strategies and multi-media options provide for a variety of learning styles

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Engaging students in learning
Engaging Students in Learning

High Impact Learning

  • Online classes can engage students in activities through discussions, simulations, virtual teams--creating conditions for authentic and high impact learning.

  • Can foster students’ engagement with others through dialogue, collaboration and exchange (Bass & Eynon, 2009)

    High Impact Activities may increase students’:

  • Investment of more time and effort in the course

  • Interaction with faculty & peers

  • Experience with diversity of opinions, culture

  • Feedback and participation

  • Relate the relevance of their learning through real-world applications

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Individual differences
Individual Differences

  • New instructional technologyoffers faculty

    • Greater capabilities for adapting instruction to students’ learning styles

    • Creative ways to have interactive engagement methods with the online students

      • Faculty can make material available to students in different forms

      • Allowing students to engage with course material at their own pace

      • Engage with course material in the medium that suits them best

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Learning styles
Learning Styles

  • Individual differences influence students’ unique learning preference: Learning Style

    • Impacts student achievement

    • Influences how they engage in online learning activities

    • Aid faculty in the planning of instruction by matching students’ learning styles with specific instructional approaches

      • (Howles & Jeong, 2004; Diaz & Cartnal, 1999 )

  • Learning Styles: Kolb, Gardner, and VAT (Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic )

    • The concepts are an aid, not a dogma to be followed and applied rigidly.

    • Aid in understanding

      • overall personality, preferences and strengths

      • often a mixture in each individual person.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Vak visual auditory kinesthetic learning styles
VAK (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) Learning Styles

  • A classical intelligence and learning styles model--(VAK)

    • Developed by psychologists and teaching specialists such as Fernald, Keller, Orton, Gillingham, Stillman and Montessori, beginning in the 1920's

  • The three predominant learning styles are visual, auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic.

    • How much students tend to remember is a function of the type of learning they prefer

    • And their level of involvement in the learning.

    • People often learn through a combination of the ways

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Learning style preference for information acquisition
Learning Style Preference for Information Acquisition

  • VAK learning styles model

    • provides a very easy and quick reference inventory to assess people's preferred learning styles

    • and then to design learning methods and experiences that match people's preferences:

  • Visual learning style involves the use of seen/ observed things, including pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, films

  • Auditory learning style involves the transfer of information through listening: to the spoken word, of self or others, of sounds and noises.

  • Kinesthetic learning involves physical experience - touching, doing, practical hands-on experiences.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Visual learners
Visual Learners

  • Learn best when information is presented visually and in a written form

  • Visualize information in their "minds' eyes" in order to remember something.

    • The online environment appropriate for visual learners-- most information is presented in written form.

    • Like graphics to help process text-based information (charts)

    • When you add graphics student recall increased by up to 50%

      • Simple graphics (pictures) which show rather than tell (such as examples of facial expressions or gestures in a Communications course).

  • Prefer visual aids such as PowerPoint, Whiteboard

    • These learners want to see an outline or list of the essential points of a lecture in order to supplement text material

    • Can include more complex images such as animated GIFs or rollovers/”mouseovers”.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Visual learners1
Visual Learners

  • Learn best when information is presented visually and in a picture or design format.

    • The online environment allows graphical representations of information-- can help students remember concepts and ideas.

    • Information can be presented using charts, tables, graphs, and images

  • Relate well to information obtained from the images and charts in textbooks

  • Benefit from lectures supplemented with film, video, maps and diagrams.

    Examples given on Making a Change: Ideas for Lively eLearning Web site

    http://blog.cathy-moore.com/elearning-samples/

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Tactile kinesthetic learners
Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners

  • Learn best when doing a physical "hands-on" activity--they like to click the mouse, move things around.

  • The online environment is suited for presentation and discussion of group or individual projects and activities

  • These students learn in physically active learning situations.

    • Benefit from demonstrations, hands-on learning experiences, and fieldwork outside the classroom

    • Simulations with 3-Dimensional graphics that replicate physical demonstrations

    • Outside fieldwork can be incorporated into the coursework, with online discussion preceding and following the experience

    • Lab sessions can be conducted either at predetermined locations then discussed online (Learn Anytime Anywhere Physics (LAAPhysics), an online virtual laboratory learning environment being developed at the University of North Carolina)

      http://www.laaphysics.com/movies/laaphysics_7mb%20.html

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Tactile kinesthetic learners1
Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners

  • Flash Technology with drag and drop functions work well for kinesthetic learners

    http://www.palmwebdesign.com/flash/Intro_Page_Examples/intro_page_6.htm

  • For some Kinesthetic Learners it helps to write things down as part of the kinesthetic and visual aspects.

    • If a notepad is offered in the course, or if the instructor prompts the learner to write down their thoughts or responses, it helps students with better retention

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Auditory learners
Auditory Learners

  • Learn best when information is presented aurally

    • like to brainstorm, talk with people

  • More to adapting online curriculum for auditory learners than inserting sound files or video clips into a web-based course

    • Instructors need to translate the spoken aspect of their face to face course into the communicative aspect of their online course--things that correspond to the need of auditory learners to be with people.

    • Benefit from listening to lecture and participating in group discussions

    • Benefit from obtaining information from podcasts, voice-over PowerPoints. When trying to remember something, they often repeat it out loud and can mentally "hear" the way the information was explained to them

  • Learn best when interacting with others in a listening/speaking activity

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Best practices
Best Practices

Results of Survey“Application of Online Technology to Support Students' Diverse Learning Styles” Conducted at

The Richard Stockton College and

Rowan University

By Diane Holtzman and Michael Ciocco

August 2009

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Demographic data
Demographic Data

Of the 44 respondents to the survey

  • 59% (26) are full-time faculty

  • 41% (18) are part-time faculty

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 45% (20) teach hybrid/online courses that are undergraduate

  • 30% (13) graduate

  • 5% (2) doctoral

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 9% (4) have 4 years of experience teaching online

  • 14% (6) --3-5 years

  • 23% (10) -- 6-10 years

  • 2% (1) -- 11-15 years

  • 52% (23) – 16 and more years

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Pedagogical Techniques most engaging for your students

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Technology tools used online- most engaging for the students

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Technology Tools Used Online

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Technology Tools- Would Like to Use

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Responses to the question on the best practice used in your online class
Responses to the Question on the Best Practice Used in Your Online Class

  • Each lesson is created, described and an example/model (or two) is given followed by an assignment requiring the student to demonstrate understanding by creating an example that would be beneficial for practical application for each student

  • The practice that seemed to generate the most response was applying lessons learned in the book to real life scenarios out of the news. For example, we were learning construction scheduling techniques and I asked the class to research the scheduling problems encountered by Tiger Woods when building his golf course in Dubai.

  • Experience with a real product available free online, then discussion re: reactions and potential applications

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Responses to the question on the best practice used in your online class1
Responses to the Question on the Best Practice Used in Your Online Class

  • Using Groups for a collaborative assignment with a private Discussion topic. The students can work together to successfully create the project which can then be posted for the other students in the class to view. (3)

  • All assignments and examinations are at the application level of Bloom's Taxonomy

  • Case analysis discussion in the Discussion Board (2)

  • Project based learning - student projects that were real (real units designed and taught to their students), and based on backward design - students were VERY intrigued with backward design (Understanding By Design) and the GRASPS project model.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Responses to the question on the best practice used in your online class2
Responses to the Question on the Best Practice Used in Your Online Class

  • Posing a discussion question based on a combination of readings, slide show lecture, and video samples; have students respond and then interact to their postings in randomly assigned small groups.

  • End of course portfolio

  • Online learning modules that incorporate screen capturing with problem based learning

  • I have had success using video links--One example is from NOVA Science; have students respond to a critical thinking question on the discussion board. Usually there is no "right answer" but they need to address key points of the question & support their answers.

  • Show video clips and have students write a response that integrates what they viewed with what they learned from the text. (2)

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Responses to the question on the best practice used in your online class3
Responses to the Question on the Best Practice Used in Your Online Class

  • Voice-over slides

  • Student- generated projects

  • Assignments, quizzes, and/or exams that serve as reinforcement and assessment after each major learning topic

  • In one course, each student brings a case from their clinical practice to the table for discussion. The student is responsible for presenting a set amount of information. Then the other students are expected to contribute other things to the discussion or raise questions, etc. Students find this an extremely important aspect of this particular course because it makes the course materials immediately applicable to their everyday professional lives.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Responses to the question on the best practice used in your online class4
Responses to the Question on the Best Practice Used in Your Online Class

  • Specific assignments that all students must research with individual responses and then threads/responses/critiques of each

  • Multiple discussion post questions of varying types and my response to each question for each student

  • Mentoring

  • Peer learning through peer review and assessment

  • Keep the students informed of upcoming events or deliverables. On the home page, I post weekly focus at a glance and upcoming deliverables

  • My voice-over powerpoint presentations make extensive use of online figures and video clips to illustrate real-world technology in action

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Translation chart
Translation Chart

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Translation chart1
Translation Chart

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Lecture tools
Lecture Tools

  • Voice-Over PowerPoint (VoPP)Technology

    • Fast way to generate lecture content

    • Built-in PPT Voice-Over; Impatica, PointeCast, ProfCast (podcast), & many others

    • Can appeal to Auditory/Verbal, Visual/Auditory & Visual/Non-auditory learners

    • Allow students to stop, start, skip, and replay any portion of the VoPP

    • Can include audio script (or notes) and printable version

    • Advantage: reusable in many venues

    • From Survey results, 52% of faculty agree that VoPP technology is more engaging than PowerPoints alone

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Discussion tools
Discussion Tools

  • Most interactive, common CMS Tool

    • 72 % of faculty surveyed use this tool

    • 85 % of faculty surveyed said that engaging students in discussion is one of the best online learning techniques

  • Can appeal to Visual/Verbal and Visual/Nonverbal learners

    • Information and topics are linked, connectivity is visual

  • Encourage engagement

  • Allow all students to have a voice

    • No need to raise hands

  • Instructor serves as discussion facilitator rather than discussion leader

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Demonstrations
Demonstrations

  • Software Training, How-to Video, Screen Capture

    • Can appeal to Visual/Auditory, Visual/Non-auditory, and Tactile/Kinesthetic learners

    • Allows for simulation or follow-along scenarios

    • Students learn through doing or practice on their own computers

    • Camtasia, Captivate, or Screen Flow (Mac) software

    • Allow students to stop, start, skip, and replay any portion of the demonstration/video

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Group activity
Group Activity

  • Group projects, case studies, debates, etc.

    • Requires strategic planning & management

    • Students should delegate work and hold responsibility

    • Instructors should mandate a student review and feedback process

    • Students can be made fully accountable for their own participation

  • Opportunity to incorporate active learning

  • May appeal more to various learning styles depending on the nature of the activity

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Kiss keep it simple sweetheart
KISS: Keep it Simple, Sweetheart

  • Less is More

    • Plan to phase in ideas and activities

  • Plan your entire course in advance

    • Strategize for the long term

  • Use scaffolding to reach learning objectives

    • Prevent overwhelming students (and yourself)

    • Make the most of time and technology

  • Avoid high-maintenance technology

    • Available & Popular (usually) = Easier to support

  • Start with ready-made resources

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Instructional design tips
Instructional Design Tips

  • Create a detailed syllabus with specific “Online” policies

  • Set Clear & Detailed Expectations

    • Detailed instructions: how many pages, double spaced?, level of grammar, spelling, etc.

  • Provide timely and insightful feedback

    • i.e. Grading w/ comments

  • Put Students in the Driver Seat

    • Democratic discussions

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Instructional design tips1
Instructional Design Tips

  • Get some mileage out of your course

    • Strategize for Re-use each term it is offered

    • Avoid using dating materials where possible

  • Avoid the latest BUZZ software unless it’s proven itself “tried & true”

  • Make good use of Ready Made materials provided by your textbook publisher, or freely available online.

    • Check with the library; unfound multi-media treasures await

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Teaching tips
Teaching Tips

  • Introduce the syllabus by quizzing the students on its contents the first week of class

  • Let your CMS be a clearing house of information

  • Use discussion boards to collect and send messages (reduce email)

  • Use Assignment Drop Boxes to collect work (forget attachments)

  • Designate an Office Hours board

  • Review your course materials in advance

  • Avoid time-wasting mistakes (wrong page #s, incomplete instructions, missing handouts)

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Teaching tips1
Teaching Tips

  • Police your course

    • Stand by your policies

    • Let your CMS be the bad cop

  • Keep track of your students

    • Set an attendance policy regarding hours spent online

    • Track attendance using your CMS’s tracking tools

    • Look for students who might be falling behind

  • Review your course materials in advance

    • Avoid time-wasting mistakes (wrong page #s, incomplete instructions, missing handouts)

  • Grade Everything

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail

Michael Ciocco  2008, 2009


Creative methods for integrating library resources
Creative Methods for Integrating Library Resources

The Richard Stockton College Library offers a number of online video tutorials at: http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/page.cfm?siteID=86&pageID=382

These video tutorials offer accompanying scripts to accommodate different learning styles.

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Conclusion you can create e learning courses that will engage students
Conclusion: You can create e-learning courses that will engage students.

  • Adapt activities from the traditional classroom

  • Add imaginative ideas that take advantage of the online technologies

  • Include a variety of interactive e-learning experiences

  • you should be able to increase learner participation, achieve your learning objectives, develop online learning communities, and ensure that your online courses engage learners

  • To Make a Difference to Student Learning and Success

    • Reduce barriers to participation

    • Emphasize the importance of students’ involvement online

    • Ensure that the online classes provide high quality content and experiences

  • What is your evidence for effectiveness?

    • Know how your students benefited from the activities presented in the online class—

    • Get student feedback periodically throughout the course, use rubrics, and students’ reflections/blogs

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


Results of Survey “Application of Online Technology to Support Students' Diverse Learning” Surveyed: Faculty who teach online classes and hybrid classes

Results from Survey conducted at

The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

and Rowan University

August 2009

by Diane Holtzman & Michael Ciocco

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail










For more information contact
For More Information contact

Diane Holtzman: [email protected]

Michael Ciocco: [email protected]

Mary Ann Trail: [email protected]

Best Practices in Online Classes: Holtzman, Ciocco, Trail


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