Large scale 3d terrain modeling
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Large-Scale 3D Terrain Modeling. David L. Page Mongi A. Abidi, Andreas F. Koschan Sophie Voisin, Sreenivas Rangan, Brad Grinstead, Wei Hao, Muharrem Mercimek Imaging, Robotics, & Intelligent Systems Laboratory The University of Tennessee March 23, 2004. Outline. 3D Terrain Modeling

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Large-Scale 3D Terrain Modeling

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Large scale 3d terrain modeling

Large-Scale 3D Terrain Modeling

David L. Page

Mongi A. Abidi, Andreas F. Koschan

Sophie Voisin, Sreenivas Rangan, Brad Grinstead, Wei Hao, Muharrem Mercimek

Imaging, Robotics, & Intelligent Systems Laboratory

The University of Tennessee

March 23, 2004


Outline

Outline

  • 3D Terrain Modeling

    • UTK mobile terrain scanning system

    • Simulation needs and Army benefit

    • Scanning system pipeline

    • “Knoxville Proving Grounds”

    • Research problems


Utk mobile terrain scanning system

UTK Mobile Terrain Scanning System

Multi-sensor data collection system for road surface.

Video Camera

GPS Receiver

GPS Base Station

3-Axis IMU and Computer

3D Range Sensor


Data acquisition

3

1

4

7

5

2

8

6

Data Acquisition

Actual Path

1 – Riegl LMS-Z210 Laser Range Scanner

2 – SICK LMS 220 LaserRange Scanner

3 – JVC GR-HD1 High Definition Camcorder

4 – Leica GPS500 D-RTK

Global Positioning System

5 – XSens MT9 Inertial Measurement Unit

6 – CPU for acquiring SICK, GPS, and IMU data

7 – CPU for acquiring Riegl data

8 – Power system

Scanned Path

Modular System

Mounted here on a push cart.

Geo-referenced geometric 3D model of an area near IRIS West in Knoxville.


Large scale 3d terrain modeling

3D View of Terrain

(Jump to 3D Viewer)


Outline1

Outline

  • 3D Terrain Modeling

    • UTK mobile terrain scanning system

    • Simulation needs and Army benefit

    • Scanning system pipeline

    • “Knoxville Proving Grounds”

    • Research problems

    • Static scanning


Simulation needs for terrain modeling

Simulation Needs for Terrain Modeling

Why needed, in general?

  • Visualization

    • Typical terrains only available in 30x30 m2 grids

    • Probably sufficient with bump mapping

  • System analysis

    • Requires high-resolution terrains!

    • Multi-body dynamics

    • Linear analysis, PSD

  • Time series analysis

    • Requires high-resolution terrains!

    • Multi-body dynamics

    • Motion stands

Bump Mapping

Discussions with Dr. Al Reid


Benefit to u s army

Scanning 3D terrains is a significant enhancement over traditional towed-cart profiling, cart dynamics, 1D profile, etc.

Real terrain modeling overcomes potential limitations of linearity, stationarity, and normality assumptions, particularly associated with PSD (Chaika & Gorsich 2004).

Research in 3D processing (tools!) addresses relevant issues in…

data reduction (Al Reid),

terrain analysis (3D EMD),

interpolation, etc.

Benefit to U.S. Army


Profilometers

Profilometers

  • Four (4) wheel trailer

  • Drawn by a tow vehicle

  • Front axle free to rotate about yaw axis (other constrained)

  • Linkage to draw bar of tow vehicle

  • Rear axle free to rotate about roll axis (other constrained)

  • No compliant suspension components between axles and frame

  • Inertial gyroscope measures pitch and roll angle

  • Ultrasonic measurement between axle and terrain (always points down)

  • Shaft encoder every 0.1 in. of travel

  • Data acquisitions every 3 inches

Towed Trailer Profilometer

Highly correlated sensor data (GPS, IMU, Range) = Correction for vehicle dynamics

UTK 3D Terrain Modeling


Comparison to profilometer

120-360 profiles over a 2-8 m swath (3D surface) vs. 1 profile (1D signal)

Correlated data vs. trailer dynamics

Agile path vs. linear path (?)

Comparison to Profilometer

3D vs. 1D

Path Overlaid on Aerial View

Zoom View

2 m wide x 8 m length

Path is 300 m length +/- 0.5 cm resolution

Video Data of Zoom

Notice Cracks in Pavement


Outline2

Outline

  • 3D Terrain Modeling

    • UTK mobile terrain scanning system

    • Simulation needs and Army benefit

    • Scanning system pipeline

    • “Knoxville Proving Grounds”

    • Research problems


System block diagram

System Block Diagram

3D range sensors

Position and orientation sensors

Visual

Thermal

IVP

RIEGL

SICK

Leica -GPS

Xsens IMU

Sony

Indigo

Range

Profiles

Video

Sequence

3D Position and Orientation

Multi-sensor Alignment

Inter-profile Alignment

Multi-modal

Data Integration

Multi-sensor

Visualization


Utk iris lab 3d sensors

UTK IRIS Lab 3D Sensors

Genex 3D CAM

IVP RANGER SC-386

SICK LMS200

Time-of-flight

Sheet-of-light triangulation-based system

Structured-light stereo system

Principle of operation

X

Laser

Camera

x’

x

c’

c

S1

S2

S1 and S2 are two sensors.

S1

3D Rendering


Statistical modeling of sensors

Statistical Modeling of Sensors

Yaw Measurements

Roll Measurements

Pitch Measurements

Standard Deviation = 0.0336

Standard Deviation = 0.0338

Standard Deviation = 0.0492

Extensive GPS and IMU error characterization and modeling.


Outline3

Outline

  • 3D Terrain Modeling

    • UTK mobile terrain scanning system

    • Simulation needs and Army benefit

    • Scanning system pipeline

    • “Knoxville Proving Grounds”

    • Research problems


Knoxville proving grounds

“Knoxville Proving Grounds”

Visualization tool built to be able to visualize “z” measurements

Blue Line is the GPS Path for the loops that we collected.

Cornerstone Drive, off Lovell Road, I-40 Exit #374 Knoxville, Tennessee, Knoxville

Each loop a length of 1.1 mile, Total distance covered on scanning that day = 2.2 miles ( 2 times) = 4.4 miles of the same data.

The color of the GPS path encodes the height of the terrain.

Over 4 miles = ~2 GB of data


Data collection

Data Collection

Automated correction for varying speeds and dynamics of platform.


Elevation change of terrain

17 m

17 m

0 m

0 m

Elevation Change of Terrain

Pathways – Loop scanning

Full length scanning


High accuracy 3d terrain

High Accuracy 3D Terrain

Full Data

~10 km

Zoom

~1 km

Zoom

~10 m

Aerial View


Triangulated terrain mesh

Triangulated Terrain Mesh

The entire stretch,

1.8 meters


Campus loop

Campus Loop

Y

Latitude and Longitude

Measurements

from the Leica DGPS

Raw Point Cloud


Outline4

Outline

  • 3D Terrain Modeling

    • UTK mobile terrain scanning system

    • Simulation needs and Army benefit

    • Scanning system pipeline

    • “Knoxville Proving Grounds”

    • Research problems


Interprofile registration problem

Interprofile Registration Problem

Vehicle (Scanning) Direction

GPS curve sampled at 10 Hz.

IMU data @ 100 Hz

Video recorded at 30 frames/sec

Range Profiles @

30 Hz 4m wide SICK

2000 Hz and 50cms wide IVP

Raw Data


Data interpolation

Data Interpolation

Correct for non-uniform data collection with terrain modeling.


Pose localization

R, T

Pose Localization

Video Sequence

Feature Matching

Pose From Motion

Oriented Tracks Filtering

RANSAC Filtering

GPS drop-outs under certain conditions.

Improve overall localization accuracy.


Data reduction

Data Reduction

Noise Removal

Initial Model

Multiresolution Analysis and Denoising

Adaptive Simplification


Statistical modeling of terrain

Statistical Modeling of Terrain

Dataset from near IRIS West

The total length of the patch: 20 meters with inter-profile spcaing around 1 cm.

Reconstructed 3D profile from the statistical model

Mean Longitudinal profile

The 3D terrain was generated using our system mounted on a van.

The profile is non-linear and non-stationary but all the IMF’s taken separately are linear and stationary, which means the PSD of the IMF’s model the data better than the PSD of the profile alone.

Empirical mode decomposition of the terrain sample shown above.

EMD implementation : Modified Brad’s functions


Temporal based stereo tire soil terrain modeling

Camera

Calibration

Image

Rectification

Dense

Matching

Disparity

Estimation

Triangulation &

Visualization

Temporal-Based StereoTire-Soil Terrain Modeling

Calibration

Pipeline of 3D Reconstruction

Test Setup

Disparity Map

Input


3d model of military tire

3D Model of Military Tire

Model Integration

(+/- 0.5 mm)

Tire 150 cm dia., 30 cm width

Registration

(18 Sections, 7 Views)

Final Model


Questions

17 m

0 m

17 m

z (m)

0 m

y (m)

x (m)

Questions?

Pathways – Loop scanning


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