Chapter 27 Section 1

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Imperialism. Control by a strong nation over a weaker nation.4 basic reasonsA. money raw materialsB. nationalism gain colonies for national strengthC.Racism belief that one race is better than another race.D. Social Darwinism- Survival of the fittest, the fittest and strongest nations would sur

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Chapter 27 Section 1

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1. Chapter 27 Section 1 Imperialist divide Africa

2. Imperialism Control by a strong nation over a weaker nation. 4 basic reasons A. money raw materials B. nationalism gain colonies for national strength C.Racism belief that one race is better than another race. D. Social Darwinism- Survival of the fittest, the fittest and strongest nations would survive while the weaker nations would not.

3. Berlin Conference In 1884-85 fourteen European nations met in Berlin. They agreed that any nation could claim any part of Africa by telling the others and by showing that it had control of the area. No Africans were invited to the conference. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia were free from European control.

4. Minerals The major source of great wealth in Africa proved to be the continent’s rich mineral resources. The Belgian Congo had copper and tin. South Africa had much wealth due to gold and diamonds.

5. Shaka He was a Zulu chief around the 1816. Shaka used a highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state in Southern Africa.

6. Boers The word Boers means farmer in Dutch. They arrived in 1652 and took over African lands and established large farms.

7. Great Trek The British stated arriving in S. Africa around 1800. To escape the British, the Boers to move north. Then the Boers started fighting the Zulus and other tribes whose land they were taking.

8. Boer War Diamonds and Gold were discovered in areas where the Boers lived. Many outsiders came and the Boers blamed the British for starting a rebellion against them. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. First modern war, finally in 1902 the British defeated the Boers.

9. Imperialism chapter 27 section 2 Case Study Nigeria

10. Colony Is an area ruled by a foreign government. An example is Somaliland in East Africa was a colony of the French,

11. Protectorate Protectorate runs its own affairs, but is controlled by an imperialist nation. Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River delta.

12. Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges. Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States.

13. Economic Imperialism Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments. The Dole fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii.

14. Four forms of control Imperialist nations had four forms of control 1. colony 2. protectorate 3.Sphere of Influence 4.economic imperialism

15. Paternalism France and other European nations used direct control. They felt that the native peoples could not handle the tough job of running a country. Instead the Imperialist nation ruled, In paternalism is a governing in a “fatherly” way by providing for needs but not giving rights.

16. Assimilation The French had a policy of assimilation. This was absorbing the colonized people into the culture of the imperialist nation. All colonial institutions were patterned after French institutions. The French hoped that the native peoples would learn French ways. They later abandoned this policy.

17. Menelik II Ethiopia was the only African nation to resist European control. This was due to Menelik II, the emperor of Ethiopia. He successfully played the Italians, French, and British against each. All were trying to establish a sphere of influence over Ethiopia.

18. Impact of Colonial Rule Africans lost control of their land. Traditions were destroyed . Boundaries that the Europeans drew up had been unnaturally imposed. Without regard to ethnic division in Africa.

19. Section 3 Muslim lands fall to Imperialist demands

20. Ottoman Empire loses power The empire had lasted for hundreds of years but by the 1800s, it was weak. The Ottoman empire was based in modern Turkey. By the year 1914 the Ottoman empire had declined to a third of its greatest size.

21. Crimean War Russia hoped to win control of the Black Sea so it could ship grain into the Mediterranean Sea. Russia fought a war with the Ottomans in the 1850s called the Crimean War. Russia lost the war when Britain and France joined on the side of the Ottomans.

22. Egypt Under Muhammad Ali, Egypt broke away from the Ottoman Empire. He reformed the army and the economy.

23. Suez Canal Ali’s grandson continued to modernize Egypt. He joined the French in building the Suez Canal. It connect the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The canal was expensive to build an d Egypt quickly found that it could not afford to repay the money it owed. The British then took over the canal and then the country.

24. Persia Oil was discovered in Persia (Iran) in the early 1900s. A British company signed an agreement with Persia’s ruler to develop the oil fields. Persians rebelled against the European influence. The Russians and the British then stepped in and took control

25. British Imperialism in India Section 4

26. East India Company Mughal empire ruled India for many centuries. In early 1700s the Mughal empire collapsed. The East India Company quickly took advantage of this. In 1775, Robert Clive led a company army and defeated Indian troops at the battle of Plessey. From that point on the East India Company ruled India.

27. Sepoys Indian soldiers under British command

28. Raj The British rule over India from 1757 to 1947.

29. Jewel in the crown India was the main supplier of raw materials for Britain. The British called India the “jewel in the crown” because it was Britain’s most valuable colony.

30. Sepoy Mutiny It started when there was a rumor that the cartridges to the guns were sealed with beef and pork fat. To use the cartridges, soldiers had to bite off the seal. To the Hindus the cow is sacred, the Muslims don’t eat pork. Then 85 to 90 Sepoys refused to accept the cartridges. News spread and there was a total mutiny of the Sepoys.

31. The British send in troops The East India Company could not by itself end the mutiny. The British army had to be sent in. Also the Indians could not unite. The Hindus did not want to be ruled by a Muslim and vice versa. Each would have preferred the British to the other religion leaders

32. Indian Nationalist Movement begin Indians resisted British control in other ways. Leaders such as Ram Mohun Roy urged changes in traditional Indian practices. He wanted to make Indian society more modern and to free India of foreign control.

33. Chapter 27 Section 5 Western Powers Rule Southeast Asia

34. Pacific Rim Countries that border the pacific Ocean.

35. Dutch They controlled what is now Indonesia. They called the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch who moved there thought of Indonesia as their home. They set up a class system that kept the Dutch at the top. Then the wealthy and educated Indonesians. Plantation workers were at the bottom.

36. British They took the port of Singapore plus Malaysia and Burma. Singapore became one the world’s busiest ports. The British control Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Malaysia where they brought seeds from the Amazon rubber trees to start rubber plantations in those areas.

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