3g and 4g wireless advances and challenges
Download
1 / 72

3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on

3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges. Suresh R. Borkar Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech. [email protected] Apr 14, 2006. 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges. Where are we? 3G Wireless Summary Where do we Want to go? Evolution to Seamless Networking

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges' - libby-roberts


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
3g and 4g wireless advances and challenges
3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges

Suresh R. Borkar

Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech.

[email protected]

Apr 14, 2006


3g and 4g wireless advances and challenges1
3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges

  • Where are we?

  • 3G Wireless Summary

  • Where do we Want to go?

  • Evolution to Seamless Networking

  • 4G Wireless

  • Challenges

The one who stays still is left behind


Where are we
Where are We?

  • Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

    • US Universal coverage achieved early 1980’s

  • “Wireless” First Generation Analog Systems

    • Speech

    • AMPS, TACS

  • Second Generation Digital Systems

    • Enhanced Capacity

    • CDMA, D-AMPS, TDMA, GSM, DECT, PDC

  • 2.5 Generation Systems

    • Low Speed Data

    • GPRS, EDGE

  • Third Generation Systems

    • “INTERNET” on Wireless

    • WiFi/HyperLAN <-> WiMAX/HyperWAN <-> CDMA2000/WCDMA

    • Evolution to All IP Network including VoIP


Representative wireless standards
Representative Wireless Standards

  • GSM/TDMA

    • Time Division Multiplexing based access

  • CDMA

    • Code Division Multiplexing based access

  • OFDM

    • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Many toys to play with


Tdma fdma
TDMA/FDMA

Give the same air to all


CDMA

X

I I I

Channelization code: Separate xmissions

from a single source from each other

Scrambling code: separate different sources

from each other

Spreading Code = Channelization code x

Scrambling code

All persons are created equal




Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ofdm
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

  • Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA

  • Capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally efficient manner without requiring multiple local oscillators (802.11a and 802.16)

  • Based on use of IFFT and FFT

  • Frequency orthogonality as compared to code orthogonality in CDMA using Walsh Code


3g services
3G Services

Who is first? – the customer; who is second? - No one


Key mobility services
Key Mobility Services

  • Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS)

    • Text, sounds, images, and video

    • Transition from Short Message Service (SMS)

    • Open Internet standards for messaging

  • Web Applications

    • Information portals

    • Wireless Markup Language (WML) with signals using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

  • Location Communications Services

    • Location Awareness Based

  • Personalization of information presentation format

    • Service capability negotiations (MExE environment)


Customized application for mobile enhanced logic camel
Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)

  • CAMEL = IN + Service portability (incl mobility and roaming)

  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)

    • Mobile user <-> ISP <-> corporate server

    • Mobility, Security, Capacity and quality

  • Prepaid, Usage Limitations, Advanced Routing Services

  • Virtual Home Environment (VHE)

    • Subscriber profile, charging information, Service information, numbering information

    • Integration of array of services, content conversion to heterogeneous services, network user profile, location aware services

  • Take the claims with a grain of salt


    GSM Network

    Billing

    Center

    STP

    HLRAuC

    BSS

    SCP

    gsm

    SCF

    SSP

    PSTN/ISDN

    IN

    ISUP

    C

    Gw-MSC

    C, D

    E, ISUP

    Call

    SMS-GW

    VLR

    MSC

    GSM04.08

    A

    UE

    Circuit domain


    GSM & GPRS

    Billing

    Center

    STP

    HLRAuC

    BSS

    SCP

    gsm

    SCF

    SSP

    IP Services

    PDN

    PSTN/ISDN

    IN

    ISUP

    Gi

    Gc

    C

    Gw-MSC

    GGSN

    Data, voice, video

    call

    Ga

    CGw

    C, D

    E, ISUP

    Gn

    Call

    Ga

    SMS-GW

    Gr

    VLR

    MSC

    SGSN

    GSM04.08+

    GSM04.08+

    A

    Gb

    UE

    Packet domain

    Circuit domain


    WCDMA/UMTS

    Billing

    Center

    STP

    HLR+AuC

    UTRAN

    SCP

    gsm

    SCF

    SSP

    IP Services

    PDN

    PSTN/ISDN

    IN, CAMEL

    ISUP

    Gi+

    Gc+

    C

    Gw-MSC

    GGSN

    Data, voice, video

    call

    Ga+

    C+, D+

    CGw

    E+, ISUP

    Gn+

    Call

    Ga+

    SMS-GW

    Gr+

    VLR

    3G-MSC

    3G-SGSN

    GSM04.08++

    GSM04.08++

    Iu-cs

    Iu-ps

    UE

    Packet domain

    Circuit domain


    EDGE

    UMTS

    GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services

    High

    (Car / Train)

    GSM

    HSCSD

    GPRS

    Mobility

    Voice

    Text Messaging

    CS Data

    Fax

    Low

    (stationary)

    Bit Rate, Kbps

    384.0 EDGE

    UMTS 2 Mb/s

    9.6

    14.4

    76.0 GPRS

    HSCSD


    3g evolution
    3G Evolution

    2.5G

    3.5G

    GPRS

    170 kbps

    EDGE

    473 kbps

    GSM

    HSCSD

    15.2 kbps

    EDGE Ph2

    GRAN

    473 kbps

    TDMA

    CDPD

    43.2 kbps

    TD-SCDMA

    Ph 2

    2 Mbps

    TD-SCDMA

    284 kbps

    WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps

    WCDMA FDD

    2 Mbps

    PDA/PDC-P

    14.4 kbps

    WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps

    1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps

    CDMA2000 1x

    307 kps

    cdmaOne

    76.8 kbps

    1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps

    HyperLAN2

    54 Mbps

    Harmonized

    HyperLAN2

    And IEEE 802.11a

    WLAN

    IEEE 802.11b

    11 Mbps

    IEEE 802.11 a/h

    54 Mbps

    WiMAX/HyperMAN also in the mix

    Ref: Honkasalo et al, WCDMA and WLAN for 3G and Beyond, IEEE Wireless Communication, Apr 2002


    Some representative current wireless options
    Some Representative Current Wireless Options

    • 3G Cellular (WCDMA)

      • Frequency Division Duplex (FDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in frequency – (“symmetric”)

      • Time Division Duplex (TDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in time – allows “asymmetric” traffic (adjust time slots in uplink and downlink)

    • 3G Cellular (CDMA2000)

    • Wi Fi

      • 802.11a and 802.11b; HyperLAN2

      • 2.4 GHz band

    • WiMAX

      • 802.16d (fixed); 802.16e (“portable”)

      • 5.8 GHz band; 10 – 20 Mbps symmetrical BW

    • Blue Tooth

      • RF based LAN technology; 20-30 feet coverage

      • 2.4 GHz band

    Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Survival of the fittest


    3g wcdma
    3G WCDMA

    • Release 99

    • Release 4

    • Release 5

    • Domains, Protocols, and Channels

    • Radio Resource Management

    • Network Dimensioning and Optimization

    • Quality of Service (QoS0 and Location Services

    The favored twin sister of CDMA2000


    Release 99
    Release 99

    • Radio Bearer Negotiations

    • Traffic Classes

    • Complex Scrambling

    • Speech Codec – (eight) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR)

    • Battery Life

    • Transmission “spatial/antenna” diversity

    • Compressed Mode

      • Measurements in multiple frequency

      • Use of transmission time reduction techniques

    • # PDP Contexts per IP Address

    • QPSK; coherent detection; Rake receiver

    • Short and Long Spreading Codes

    • Multicall – several simultaneous CS calls with dedicated bearers of independent traffic and performance characteristics

    • Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3

    A lot to gobble


    Release 4
    Release 4

    • Bearer Independent Core Network

    • Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO), and Out of Band Transcoder Control (OoBTC)

    • Low Chip Rate TDD Operation

    • Network Assisted Cell Change

    • FDD Repeater

    • NodeB Synchronization for TDD

    • IPv6 packet switched network supporting both real time and non-real time traffic

      • Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) replacing SS7

    • Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

    • MSC/VLR -> MSC server (mobility management) and MGW (Connection management subtasks)

    • Multimedia Message Service (MMS) environment


    Release 5
    Release 5

    • IP Transport in UTRAN

    • High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps)

    • Intra Domain Connection to Multiple CN Nodes (Iuflex)

    • IP Multimedia CN Subsystem (IMS)

    • “Guaranteed” End to End (E2E) QoS in the PS domain

    • Global Text Telephony

    • Support for Real Time Services in packet domain

    • CAMEL Phase 4


    Hsdpa
    HSDPA

    • Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps

    • Same spectrum by both voice and data

      • Up to 12 spreading codes for High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH)

      • Fast link Adaptation

      • Both code and time division for channel sharing

    • Transmission Time interval 2 ms

    • Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ)

      • Automatic optimizations to Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)

    • QPSK and 16 QAM modulation at 3.84 Mhz symbol; spreading factor fixed to 16

    • Incremental Redundancy or chase combining (CH)

    • New DPCCH2 in uplink primarily for HARQ channel state info


    Wcdma domains
    WCDMA Domains

    Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata)




    Wcdma channels
    WCDMA Channels

    Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface

    Logical Channels: Type of information transferred over the radio interface

    Channels made by soft hats



    Wcdma channel usage examples
    WCDMA Channel Usage Examples

    Flexibility comes with responsibility


    Radio resource management
    Radio Resource Management

    • Power Control

    • Handover

    • Access Control

    • Load and Congestion Control

    • Packet Scheduling


    Wcdma power control near far
    WCDMA Power Control (near = far)

    Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz)

    Open Loop Power Control

    Closed Loop Power Control

    Outer Loop Power Control

    Equal Opportunity Administration (EOA)


    Wcdma handovers
    WCDMA Handovers

    Softer

    Soft

    Hard and Inter-frequency handovers

    Intersystem cell-reselection

    “Equivalent PLMN mode” (autonomous cell re-selection (packet) idle mode)


    Handover algorithm
    Handover Algorithm

    A relay race with multiple batons


    Network dimensioning and optimization
    Network Dimensioning and Optimization

    • Dimensioning Criteria

      • Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service

    • Dimensioning

      • Link budget, capacity (hard and soft) and load factor

      • Estimation of average interference power

      • Coverage end Outage probabilities

    • Optimization

      • Performance Requirements

      • Antenna adjustments, neighbor lists, scrambling codes

    Don’t force a round peg in a square hole


    Wcdma quality of service qos
    WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos)

    • Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer

      • Thruput, transfer delay, data error rate

      • Authentications

    One way communications is no communications


    Location services lcs
    Location Services (LCS)

    Cell ID based

    Observed Time Difference Arrival – Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL)

    Network Assisted GPS

    You can run but you cannot hide


    Why move towards 4g
    Why Move Towards 4G?

    • Limitation to meet expectations of applications like multimedia, full motion video, wireless teleconferencing

      • Wider Bandwidth

    • Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards hampering global mobility and service portability

    • Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs’; need a new integrated network

    • Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more efficient modulation schemes

    • Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged video and data

    Incessant human desire to reach the sky


    Where do we want to go
    Where Do We Want to Go?

    • Seamless Roaming

    • Integrated “standard” Networks

    • Mobile Intelligent Internet

    • Onwards to (Ultra) Wideband Wireless IP Networks

    We are no longer in Kansas, Toto


    Upcoming
    Upcoming

    • 3.5 G

      • Evolved radio Interface

      • IP based core network

    • 4G

      • New Air Interface

      • Very high bit rate services

      • Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds

    And Now for Something Completely Different


    3g all ip reference architecture

    Legacy mobile

    signaling

    Network

    Alternative

    Access

    Network

    CSCF

    R-SGW

    Mw

    Mh

    Ms

    Mm

    HSS

    CSCF

    Mg

    Cx

    Mr

    MRF

    Gi

    MGCF

    T-SGW

    Gi

    Mc

    PSTN/

    Legacy/External

    Gi

    MGW

    MGW

    Iu

    Nb

    Mc

    Mc

    MSC Server

    GMSC Server

    T-SGW

    Nc

    3G All-IP Reference Architecture

    Applications

    & Services

    Multimedia

    IP Networks

    SCP

    HLR

    CAP

    Gi

    Gr

    Gc

    SGSN

    Gn

    GGSN

    Iu

    MT

    UTRAN

    TE

    R

    Uu

    Gp

    Signalling Interface

    GGSN

    Gn

    Signalling and Data Transfer Interface

    Other PLMN

    SGSN


    Wireless

    Data

    Server

    Wireless

    Data

    Server

    PSTN/ISDN

    Internet/Intranet/ISP

    PSTN/ISDN

    Application servers

    Internet/Intranet/ISP

    Application servers

    www, email

    www, email

    IP Firewall

    IP Firewall

    IP

    IP

    PSTN/ISDN

    GGSN

    GGSN

    CSCF

    MGCF

    SGW

    HLRAuC

    HSS

    (G)MSC

    Server

    3G-MSC

    3G-MSC

    MGW

    MGW

    PCM

    PCM

    IP

    SS7

    SS7

    SGSN

    SGSN

    MRF

    GGSN

    ATM

    GTP+/IP

    ATM

    GTP+/IP

    Iur

    Iur

    Iub

    Iub

    Iub

    Iub

    RNC

    RNC

    RNC

    RNC

    N_B

    N_B

    N_B

    N_B

    WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network

    UTRAN


    3 5g radio network evolution
    3.5G Radio Network Evolution

    • High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access

    • Support flexible bandwidth upto 20 MHz, new transmission schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, and signaling optimization

    • Instantaneous peak DL 100 Mb/s and UP 50 Mb/S within 20 MHz spectrum

    • Control plane latency of < 100 ms (camped to active) and < 50 ms (dormant to active)

    • > 200 users per cell within 5 MHz spectrum

    • Spectrum flexibility from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz

    • Eliminate “dedicated” channels; avoid macro diversity in DL

    • Migrate towards OFDM in DL and SC-FDMA in UL

    • Support voice services in the packet domain

    • Adaptive Modulation and Coding using Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) measurements




    Key 4g mobility concepts
    Key 4G Mobility Concepts

    • Mobile IP

      • VoIP

      • Ability to move around with the same IP address

      • IP tunnels

      • Intelligent Internet

    • Presence Awareness Technology

      • Knowing who is on line and where

    • Radio Router

      • Bringing IP to the base station

    • Smart Antennas

      • Unique spatial metric for each transmission

    Wireless IP <---> IP Wireless


    4g networks advances
    4G Networks Advances

    • Seamless mobility (roaming)

      • Roam freely from one standard to another

      • Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite communications

    • 100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area)

    • IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video

      • IP RAN

    • Open unified standards

    • Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)

      • Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP

      • Maintain several data streams within a single connection

    • Service Location Protocol (SLP)

      • Automatic resource discovery

      • Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents

    The demise of SS7


    4g networks advances cont d
    4G Networks Advances – cont’d

    • Diameter

      • Successor to “Radius”

      • Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)

    • Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs)

    • HSS

      • Unified Subscriber Information

    • Application developers, Service providers, and content creators

    Expand beyond the circle


    Key challenges
    Key Challenges

    • Spectral Efficiencies

      • Challenge Shannon’s fundamental law of data communications (BW, Sig/No)

      • Hardware Frequency Synthesis techniques esp. for Frequency Hop (FH) systems

      • Traffic characteristics management (burstiness, directionality)

    • Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)

      • Baseband process using parallel equal bandwidth subchannels

      • MC-CDMA; OFDM

      • Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

      • Add cyclic extension or guard band to data

      • Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR)

    No pain, no gain


    Key challenges cont d 1
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 1

    • Signal Processing and optimizations

      • Handling extremely large number of users

      • Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions

      • Orthogonality / correlation of large number of codes

      • Spectrum Pollution

      • Multi path re-enforcement / interference

      • Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques (ISI and MAI)


    Key challenges cont d 2
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 2

    • Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication)

      • N Dimensional vector spaces

      • IFFT, FFT

      • Advanced DSP’s for parsing and processing data

    • Smart / Intelligent Antennas

      • Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI

      • Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays

      • Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz)

    Manage Entropy


    Key challenges cont d 3
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 3

    • More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs

      • Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious rejection, power consumption

      • Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques

      • Tight closed Loop power control

      • Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments

      • Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios

      • Error Correction Coding

      • “Perfect” Synchronization / phase alignment between Xmitter and Receiver

        • Clock recovery algorithms (e.g., as times-two, zero crossing)

      • Adaptive digitization of speech and multi media signals

        • A/D and D/A transformations


    4g rf if architecture example
    4G RF/IF Architecture Example

    Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm


    4g transreceiver processing example
    4G Transreceiver Processing Example

    Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm


    Key challenges cont d 4
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 4

    • All IP Network

      • Tunneling and Firewalls

      • Fast Handoff control, authentication, realtime location tracking, distributed policy management

      • Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic

        • Trasnscoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability

    • Integration across different topologies

      • Multi Disciplinary Cooperation

    WPAN

    WLAN

    + IP

    WWAN

    WMAN

    There is packet at the end of the tunnel


    Key challenges cont d 5
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 5

    • Distribute intelligence to the edges

      • Very Smart User equipment; away from “network Centric” architecture

      • Access routers

      • Miniaturization esp User Equipment

    • Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS)

      • Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information”

      • Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness

      • Dynamic optimization of scarce resources

    • Advanced Used interactions / presentation

      • Improved User interfaces

      • advanced Speech recognition and synthesis

      • Flexible displays


    Key challenges cont d 6
    Key Challenges - cont’d - 6

    • Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs

      • Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents

      • Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning algorithms

      • Symbolic manipulation

      • Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources

    • Standardizations and Regulatory

      • Modulation techniques, switching schemes, roaming

      • Spectrum

      • Cooperation/coordination among global Spectrum Regulators


    4g forums
    4G Forums

    • Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe

    • Next-Generation Internet (NGI)

      • Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.)

      • High Performance networks: vBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE),

    • Internet2

      • US Universities Initiated

      • Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (gigaPoPs)


    Summary
    Summary

    • Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications

    • Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface

    • Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas

    • Continued advances and challenges from 1G -> 4G

      • Modulation techniques, transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunelling and firewalls

      • Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard, authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation

    • Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, esp. User Equipment (UE)

    • IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G

    • IP in the sky with diamonds



    1 st generation analog cellular systems
    1st Generation Analog Cellular Systems


    2 nd generation cellular and cordless systems
    2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems





    Wcdma circuit switched protocols

    CM

    MM

    RANAP

    RANAP

    Iu

    UP

    SCCP

    SCCP

    PHY

    FP

    ALCAP

    NBAP

    MTP3B

    MTP3B

    SSCF-UNI

    SSCF-UNI

    SSCF-NNI

    SSCF-NNI

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    AAL2

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL2

    ATM

    PHY

    WCDMA Circuit Switched Protocols

    CM

    MM

    RRC

    RRC

    CODEC

    RLC

    RLC

    MAC

    MAC

    Iu

    UP

    Phy-up

    Phy-up

    Q.2630.1

    Q.2630.1

    Q.2150.1

    Q.2150.1

    PHY

    NBAP

    ALCAP

    FP

    MTP3b

    MTP3b

    SSCF-UNI

    SSCF-UNI

    SSCF-NNI

    SSCF-NNI

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    SSCOP

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL2

    AAL2

    AAL5

    AAL5

    ATM

    ATM

    ATM

    PHY

    PHY

    PHY

    Node B

    RNC

    Core

    UE


    Wcdma packet control plane protocols

    SM

    GMM

    RRC

    RRC

    RLC

    RLC

    MAC-cd

    MAC-cd

    PHY-up

    PHY-up

    FP

    ALCAP

    NBAP

    NBAP

    ALCAP

    FP

    SSSAR

    SAAL

    SAAL

    SAAL

    SAAL

    SSSAR

    PHY

    PHY

    AAL2

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL5

    AAL2

    ATM

    ATM

    CDMA

    CDMA

    PHY

    PHY

    UE/MTE

    NODE B

    RNC

    SGSN

    WCDMA PACKET CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS

    Uu

    Iub

    Iu-ps


    Wcdma packet user plane protocols

    Uu

    Iub

    Iu-ps

    IP

    PDCP

    PDCP

    RLC

    RLC

    MAC

    MAC

    PHY-up

    PHY-up

    FP

    FP

    ALCAP

    ALCAP

    PHY

    AAL2

    SAAL

    PHY

    SAAL

    AAL2

    CDMA

    ATM

    CDMA

    ATM

    PHY

    PHY

    UE/MTE

    NODE B

    RNC

    SGSN

    WCDMA PACKET USER PLANE PROTOCOLS




    Standards
    Standards

    • IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi)

    • IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth)

    • IEEE 802.16d and e: Wireless MAN (WiMAX)

    • IS-41: Inter-systems operation (TIA/EIA-41)

    • IS-54: 1st Gen (US) TDMA; 6 users per 30 KHz channel

    • IS-88: CDMA

    • IS-91: Analog Callular air interface

    • IS-93: Wireless to PSTN Interface

    • IS-95: TIA for CDMA (US) (Cdmaone)

    • IS-124: Call detail and billing record

    • IS-136: 2nd Genr TDMA (TDMA control channel)

    • IS-637: CDMA Short Message Service (SMS)

    • IS-756: TIA for Wireless Network Portability (WNP)

    • IS-2000: cdma2000 air interface (follow on to TIA/EIA 95-B)


    Glossary
    Glossary

    3GPP:3G Partnership Project

    AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting

    AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec)

    ANSI:American National Standards Institute

    ARIB:Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan)

    BRAN:Broadband Radio Access Network (HYPERLAN 2) 2.5 Mbps

    CAMEL:Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic

    CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access

    CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards group (China)

    ECMA:European Computer Manufacturers Association

    EDGE:Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution

    ETSI:European Telecommunications Standards Institute

    FDD:Frequency Division Duplex

    FDMA:Frequency Division Multiple Access

    GGSN:Gateway GPRS Support Node

    GMSC:Gateway MSC

    GPRS:General Packet Radio Service

    GSM:Global System for Mobile communication

    GTP:GPRS Tunneling Protocol

    HIPERLAN:High Performance Radio Local Area Network

    HLR:Home Location Register

    HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data

    HYPERLAN: High Performance Radio Access network

    IMSI:International Mobile Subscriber Identity

    IMT:International Mobile Telecommunications

    ITU:International Telecommunications UnionOVSF:Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

    PDN:Public Data Network

    PLMN:Public Land Mobile Network

    PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network

    QoS:Quality of Service

    RAB:Radio Access Bearer

    RNC:Radio Network Controller

    RRC:Radio Resource Control

    SGSN:Servicing GPRS Support Node

    SIM:Subscriber Identity Module

    TDD:Time Division Duplex

    TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access

    TTA:Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea)

    TTC:Telecommunications Technology Commission (Japan)

    UMTS:Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

    UTRAN:UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

    VoIP:Voice over Internet Protocol

    WCDMA:Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

    WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network

    WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network

    WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network


    References
    References

    1. www.3gpp.org

    2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001

    3. UMTS - Mobile Communications for the Future, Ed. F.Muratore, John Wiley, 2001

    4. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Eds E.Djanpera and R.Prasad, Artech House, 2001

    5. IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000, V.K.Garg, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, 2002

    6. IP Telephony, O. Hersent, D. Gurle Et, and J-P Petit, Addison-Wesley, 2000

    7. www.mobileinfo.com


    ad