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The French Revolution of 1789. Origins. Absolutism The Enlightenment philosophes -Montesquieu -Voltaire -Rousseau Deism and Anti-Catholicism. Underlying Causes of the Revolution (1789). The French monarchy in debt Bad harvests and starvation Enlightenment philosophies

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Origins
Origins

Absolutism

The Enlightenment philosophes

-Montesquieu

-Voltaire

-Rousseau

Deism and Anti-Catholicism


Underlying causes of the revolution 1789
Underlying Causes of the Revolution (1789)

  • The French monarchy in debt

  • Bad harvests and starvation

  • Enlightenment philosophies

    and increasing literacy

  • Nobles resent political weakness (Divine Right, absolute monarchy)

  • Commoners resent feudal privileges


The estates general meets may 1789
The Estates-General Meets (May, 1789)

  • First Estate (Clergy of 130,000, 10% landholding)

  • Second Estate (Nobles number

    about 350,000, 30% of the land)

  • Sword and robe nobility

  • First two estates have tax exemptions and privileges (taille)

  • Third Estate (Bourgeoisie, artisans, peasants, commoners)


Estates general provisions and internal conflicts
Estates-General Provisions and Internal Conflicts

  • Third estate representation is doubled

  • Voting by head or order?

  • Third estate wants vote by head, First estate by order

  • Cahiers De Doleances(Abbe

    Sieyes) and peasant grievances

  • Third estate moves to create

  • national assembly, draw up constitution (Tennis Court Oath, June 20)


The king s response and the start of the revolution
The King’s Response and the Start of the Revolution

  • Louis XVI prepares to use force against the Third Estate

  • Storming of the Bastille (July 14)

  • Violence in the countryside (The Great Fear)


The national assembly 1789 1791
The National Assembly (1789-1791)

  • The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (August 1789)

  • Feudalism abolished (August 1789)

  • Department structure created

  • King resists, March of Women on Versailles (October, 1789)

  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790)

  • Limited Monarchy, voting and office holding based on wealth (active and passive citizens)

  • Denial of women’s equality and participation


Events of 1791 1792
Events of 1791-1792

  • The King’s flight to Austria and capture at Varennes (June 1791)

  • French declaration of war on Austria (April 1792)

  • Austrian invasion of France, the search for internal enemies, and radicalization of Paris

  • King and Assembly arrested by

    Sans-Culottes (August 1792)

  • September Massacres


The national convention and radical revolution 1792 1794
The National Convention and Radical Revolution (1792-1794)

  • Unicameral National Convention elected, monarchy abolished (September 1792)

  • Rousseau inspired republic (the General Will)

  • Robbespierre, the Committee of Public Safety, and the Reign of Terror

  • Purge of the Girondins and the

    Hebertistfactions

  • Suppression of Federalism


Jacobin rule
Jacobin Rule

  • Louis XVI (January 1793) and Marie Antoinette (October 1793) guillotined

  • Sans-culottes and the Paris Commune

  • French Republic officially created

    (September 1792)

  • Levee en masse

  • Revolutionary Calendar and festivals

  • De-Christianization

  • Maximum laws and press censorship

  • State sponsored education

  • Universal manhood suffrage (national elections)


The thermidorian reaction 1794 1799
The Thermidorian Reaction (1794-1799)

  • Robespierre guillotined, Jacobins overthrown

  • The Directory and the Constitution

    of the Year III (moderate revolutionaries)

  • Churches reappear, price controls end, propertied assembly elected

  • Left and right uprisings against the government require reliance upon the Army (Napoleon Bonaparte)


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