Communications contexts
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Communications contexts. Communications 233. “Communication”. communis – common communicare – to impart, share commicatus – past participle of communicare. “What does this mean?”. Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?. “What does this mean?”. “What does this mean?”.

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Communications contexts

Communications contexts

Communications 233


Communication

“Communication”

  • communis – common

  • communicare – to impart, share

  • commicatus – past participle of communicare


What does this mean

“What does this mean?”

  • Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?


What does this mean1

“What does this mean?”


What does this mean2

“What does this mean?”


What does this mean3

“What does this mean?”


What does this mean4

“What does this mean?”


Types of communication content

Types of communication content

  • Cognitive

    • Knowledge

    • Opinion

    • Attitude

  • Affective

    • Feeling

    • Emotion

    • Sensory


Shannon weaver model

Source

Encoder

Message

Channel

Decoder

Receiver

Channel Noise

Semantic Noise

Feedback?

Shannon-Weaver Model


Schramm s common field of experience concept

Schramm’s common field of experience concept

  • We can only communicate about that which we have in common with our audience


Communications contexts

Thanh

Maria

Common field

of experience


Heider s p o x model

Heider’s P-O-X model

  • Intrapersonal communication

  • A person (P)

  • Another person (O)

  • An object of concern (X)

  • Balance theory


Communications contexts

X

P

O


Communications contexts

Balanced

X

+

+

P

O

+


Communications contexts

Balanced

X

-

-

P

O

+


Communications contexts

Imbalanced

X

-

-

P

O

-


Newcomb s abx model

Newcomb’s ABX model

  • Interpersonal communication

  • Builds upon Heider’s theory

  • Adds “strain toward symmetry” idea

  • “Strain” pushes us to communicate


Communications contexts

Strain toward

symmetry

produces

balance

X

-

-

A

B

+


Westley maclean model

Westley-MacLean model

  • Mass communication model

  • Used Newcomb’s ideas and added a medium of communication


Communications contexts

fba

X1

fca

X2

X’

X’’

A

C

B

X3

.

.

fbc

X∞


There are at least three levels of communication

There are at least three levels of communication

  • Intrapersonal

  • Interpersonal

  • Mass


Mass communications media

Books

Newspapers

Magazines

Film

Recorded music

Radio

Television

Cable

Internet

Mass communications media


Media support systems auxiliary services

Media support systems,auxiliary services

  • Advertising

  • Public Relations

  • Wire Services

  • Syndicates

  • Other


Functions of the media

Functions of the media

  • Inform

  • Entertain

  • Persuade

  • Provide economic support

  • Develop common basis of experience


Mass communications is financed by

Mass communications is financed by

  • Private capital investment

  • Advertising

  • Subscription, purchases

  • Decoder expenditures

  • Government subsidy


Definition of mass communication

Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process


Definition of mass communication1

Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media


Definition of mass communication2

Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously


Definition of mass communication3

Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences


Definition of mass communication4

Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways


Five distinct stages of mass communications

Five distinct stages of mass communications:

  • Professional communicators formulate messages.

  • Messages are disseminated via mechanical (artificial) means

  • Messages reach large and diverse audiences.

  • Audience members interpret messages as they assign meanings.

  • Audience members are influenced.


Communicators

Communicators

  • Large, unknown audience vs. known, small audience

  • Institutional communications vs. person (Leads to resistance to change.)

  • Heterogeneous audience produces content for “the wad”


Messages

Messages

  • Multi-channeled vs. singularity of channels

  • Multi-channeled produces more “affective” communication content

  • Issues surrounding accuracy


Feedback

Feedback

  • Instant in personal, delayed in mass communications

  • Greater quantity in personal, less in mass communications


Mass communications markets

Mass communications “markets”

  • Consumer Market

  • Advertising Market

  • Marketplace of ideas


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