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Communications contexts. Communications 233. “Communication”. communis – common communicare – to impart, share commicatus – past participle of communicare. “What does this mean?”. Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?. “What does this mean?”. “What does this mean?”.

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Communications contexts

Communications contexts

Communications 233


Communication
“Communication”

  • communis – common

  • communicare – to impart, share

  • commicatus – past participle of communicare


What does this mean
“What does this mean?”

  • Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?






Types of communication content
Types of communication content

  • Cognitive

    • Knowledge

    • Opinion

    • Attitude

  • Affective

    • Feeling

    • Emotion

    • Sensory


Shannon weaver model

Source

Encoder

Message

Channel

Decoder

Receiver

Channel Noise

Semantic Noise

Feedback?

Shannon-Weaver Model


Schramm s common field of experience concept
Schramm’s common field of experience concept

  • We can only communicate about that which we have in common with our audience


Thanh

Maria

Common field

of experience


Heider s p o x model
Heider’s P-O-X model

  • Intrapersonal communication

  • A person (P)

  • Another person (O)

  • An object of concern (X)

  • Balance theory


X

P

O


Balanced

X

+

+

P

O

+


Balanced

X

-

-

P

O

+


Imbalanced

X

-

-

P

O

-


Newcomb s abx model
Newcomb’s ABX model

  • Interpersonal communication

  • Builds upon Heider’s theory

  • Adds “strain toward symmetry” idea

  • “Strain” pushes us to communicate


Strain toward

symmetry

produces

balance

X

-

-

A

B

+


Westley maclean model
Westley-MacLean model

  • Mass communication model

  • Used Newcomb’s ideas and added a medium of communication


fba

X1

fca

X2

X’

X’’

A

C

B

X3

.

.

fbc

X∞


There are at least three levels of communication
There are at least three levels of communication

  • Intrapersonal

  • Interpersonal

  • Mass


Mass communications media

Books

Newspapers

Magazines

Film

Recorded music

Radio

Television

Cable

Internet

Mass communications media


Media support systems auxiliary services
Media support systems,auxiliary services

  • Advertising

  • Public Relations

  • Wire Services

  • Syndicates

  • Other


Functions of the media
Functions of the media

  • Inform

  • Entertain

  • Persuade

  • Provide economic support

  • Develop common basis of experience


Mass communications is financed by
Mass communications is financed by

  • Private capital investment

  • Advertising

  • Subscription, purchases

  • Decoder expenditures

  • Government subsidy


Definition of mass communication
Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process


Definition of mass communication1
Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media


Definition of mass communication2
Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously


Definition of mass communication3
Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences


Definition of mass communication4
Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways


Five distinct stages of mass communications
Five distinct stages of mass communications:

  • Professional communicators formulate messages.

  • Messages are disseminated via mechanical (artificial) means

  • Messages reach large and diverse audiences.

  • Audience members interpret messages as they assign meanings.

  • Audience members are influenced.


Communicators
Communicators

  • Large, unknown audience vs. known, small audience

  • Institutional communications vs. person (Leads to resistance to change.)

  • Heterogeneous audience produces content for “the wad”


Messages
Messages

  • Multi-channeled vs. singularity of channels

  • Multi-channeled produces more “affective” communication content

  • Issues surrounding accuracy


Feedback
Feedback

  • Instant in personal, delayed in mass communications

  • Greater quantity in personal, less in mass communications


Mass communications markets
Mass communications “markets”

  • Consumer Market

  • Advertising Market

  • Marketplace of ideas


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