Communications contexts
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Communications contexts. Communications 233. “Communication”. communis – common communicare – to impart, share commicatus – past participle of communicare. “What does this mean?”. Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?. “What does this mean?”. “What does this mean?”.

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Communications contexts

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Communications contexts

Communications 233


“Communication”

  • communis – common

  • communicare – to impart, share

  • commicatus – past participle of communicare


“What does this mean?”

  • Tot, kto ponimáyet éto polucháyem pyatyórka?


“What does this mean?”


“What does this mean?”


“What does this mean?”


“What does this mean?”


Types of communication content

  • Cognitive

    • Knowledge

    • Opinion

    • Attitude

  • Affective

    • Feeling

    • Emotion

    • Sensory


Source

Encoder

Message

Channel

Decoder

Receiver

Channel Noise

Semantic Noise

Feedback?

Shannon-Weaver Model


Schramm’s common field of experience concept

  • We can only communicate about that which we have in common with our audience


Thanh

Maria

Common field

of experience


Heider’s P-O-X model

  • Intrapersonal communication

  • A person (P)

  • Another person (O)

  • An object of concern (X)

  • Balance theory


X

P

O


Balanced

X

+

+

P

O

+


Balanced

X

-

-

P

O

+


Imbalanced

X

-

-

P

O

-


Newcomb’s ABX model

  • Interpersonal communication

  • Builds upon Heider’s theory

  • Adds “strain toward symmetry” idea

  • “Strain” pushes us to communicate


Strain toward

symmetry

produces

balance

X

-

-

A

B

+


Westley-MacLean model

  • Mass communication model

  • Used Newcomb’s ideas and added a medium of communication


fba

X1

fca

X2

X’

X’’

A

C

B

X3

.

.

fbc

X∞


There are at least three levels of communication

  • Intrapersonal

  • Interpersonal

  • Mass


Books

Newspapers

Magazines

Film

Recorded music

Radio

Television

Cable

Internet

Mass communications media


Media support systems,auxiliary services

  • Advertising

  • Public Relations

  • Wire Services

  • Syndicates

  • Other


Functions of the media

  • Inform

  • Entertain

  • Persuade

  • Provide economic support

  • Develop common basis of experience


Mass communications is financed by

  • Private capital investment

  • Advertising

  • Subscription, purchases

  • Decoder expenditures

  • Government subsidy


Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process


Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media


Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously


Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences


Definition of mass communication

  • Mass communications is a process in which professional communicators use mechanical media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways


Five distinct stages of mass communications:

  • Professional communicators formulate messages.

  • Messages are disseminated via mechanical (artificial) means

  • Messages reach large and diverse audiences.

  • Audience members interpret messages as they assign meanings.

  • Audience members are influenced.


Communicators

  • Large, unknown audience vs. known, small audience

  • Institutional communications vs. person (Leads to resistance to change.)

  • Heterogeneous audience produces content for “the wad”


Messages

  • Multi-channeled vs. singularity of channels

  • Multi-channeled produces more “affective” communication content

  • Issues surrounding accuracy


Feedback

  • Instant in personal, delayed in mass communications

  • Greater quantity in personal, less in mass communications


Mass communications “markets”

  • Consumer Market

  • Advertising Market

  • Marketplace of ideas


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