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The Spanish Empire. “We came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”. Clash of Cultures. “Arrows and tomahawks were seldom a match for gun, cannons, and smallpox.”. Cortes’s Conquest. In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail for Cuba with 11 ships and 600 men

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The spanish empire

The Spanish Empire

“We came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”

Clash of cultures
Clash of Cultures

  • “Arrows and tomahawks were seldom a match for gun, cannons, and smallpox.”

Cortes s conquest
Cortes’s Conquest

  • In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail for Cuba with 11 ships and 600 men

  • Among them were conquistadores

    • Unpaid mercenaries

    • Risking their lives for a share of the plunder and slaves

  • To prevent desertion, Cortes burned all but 1 ship when they arrived in Veracruz

  • In Veracruz, Cortes attacked a several small kingdoms that were independent of the Aztecs

  • He then convinced the defeated warriors to join him on his quest to defeat the Aztecs

The aztecs
The Aztecs

  • One of the most powerful civilizations in the world at the time or Cortes’s arrival

Aztec religion
Aztec Religion

  • Human sacrifice was an important element of their faith

  • The Aztecs used these sacrifices to justify war

  • The Spanish were horrified by this (public torture and executions were also common in Europe at the time)

Spanish invaders
Spanish Invaders

  • When Cortes entered Tenochtitlan, Montezuma II mistook him for a god

  • “We Spaniards have a disease of the heart that only gold can cure.”

  • Forced Aztecs into slavery to mine more gold and silver

  • Angry Aztecs stoned Montezuma II as a traitor

  • Cortes retreated, but returned to besiege the city while smallpox decimated the population

Spanish america
Spanish America

  • Encomienda – system in which conquistadores became privileged landowners and controlled Indian villages

  • Indians provided goods and labor, encomiendas provided protection and missionaries

  • By 1503, the Spanish started bringing African slaves to America

Spanish exploration in north america
Spanish Exploration in North America

  • Spain had the good luck of both arriving first and landing in the most lucrative spot

  • For most of the colonial period, much of today’s United States belonged to Spain

  • Spain’s colonial influence lasted 300 years, much longer than England’s or France’s

Spanish exploration in north america1
Spanish Exploration in North America

  • Although centered in Mexico, the Spanish empire extended as far east as Florida and as far north as Alaska

  • The Spanish left their influence on place names, architecture, and culture

Spanish exploration in north america2
Spanish Exploration in North America

  • Juan Ponce de Leon was the earliest explorer of Florida

  • The Spanish sailed the entire Gulf Coast

  • Explored as far north as Newfoundland

  • Established a short-lived colony in the Carolinas

  • Spanish culture spread everywhere they went

Spanish exploration of north america
Spanish Exploration of North America

  • Hernando de Soto and his men explored from Florida to North Carolina, then west to the Mississippi River.

  • After his death, his men sailed down the Mississippi and found their way back to Mexico

  • The Spanish established provinces in Florida, northern California, and Texas as a means of deterring other Europeans from wandering into their claim

    • St. Augustine established to keep the Huguenots in South Carolina out of Florida

The spanish southwest
The Spanish Southwest

  • Permanent settlements were established in New Mexico, Texas, and California

  • Missions:

    • Settled in isolated areas by Catholic priests who would work to convert Indians

    • After 10 years, the mission would become a secular town

    • Land would be divided among converted Indians and they would get full Spanish citizenship

The spanish southwest1
The Spanish Southwest

  • Some Indians welcomed the missionaries as powerful witches

  • Others tried to use them against rival tribes

  • The rest usually submitted to Spanish rule

The spanish southwest2
The Spanish Southwest

  • Difficult living and sparse gold caused interest in the Southwest to wane

  • However, by 1610 Santa Fe was thriving was English colonists were struggling to survive at Jamestown

The pueblo revolt 1680
The Pueblo Revolt (1680)

  • Popé led a massive rebellion against the Catholic church

  • Executed priests and destroyed relics

  • Took Santa Fe has his capital

  • This event marked the greatest defeat the American Indians inflicted on European efforts to colonize the Americas

  • The Spanish wouldn’t reassert control over New Mexico for 14 years

Horses and the great plains
Horses and the Great Plains

  • Spanish authorities made it illegal for Indians to own horses

  • The Pueblo Revolt gave Indians free access to Spanish horses for the first time

  • The Pueblo began trading horses with other tribes

  • By 1700, horses were found throughout the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains

Horses and the great plains1
Horses and the Great Plains

  • The speed and strength of horses gave American Indians much greater mobility and power

  • Indians could travel farther to trade or fight

  • Horses could also carry heavy burdens from hunts

Horses and the great plains2
Horses and the Great Plains

  • Horses enables tribes like the Sioux to become nomadic bison hunters

  • Bison provided almost everything these tribes needed for daily life (“tribal department store”)

  • Horses also competed with bison for food and enabled Indians to hunt them more quickly than herds could replenish

  • Horses also enabled diseases to spread futher faster

Horses and the great plains3
Horses and the Great Plains

  • Horses became tribal status symbols that led to warfare

  • Horses, therefore, were a benefit and a detriment to American India society