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Sociology: Ch 4 Sec 1 Definitions . “Social Structure” “Building Blocks of Social Structure” Standards: 4.11, 5.13. Section 1 Vocabulary. 1. Social Structure : Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction

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Sociology ch 4 sec 1 definitions

Sociology: Ch 4 Sec 1Definitions

“Social Structure”

“Building Blocks of Social Structure”

Standards: 4.11, 5.13

Section 1 vocabulary
Section 1 Vocabulary

  • 1. Social Structure: Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction

  • 2. Status: a socially defined position in a group or in society

  • 3. Role: behavior, right, and obligations expected of someone occupying a particular status

Types of status
Types of Status

  • 4. Ascribed Status: assigned status given based on qualities that are out of a person’s control (Black/White)

  • 5. Achieved Status: Status achieved through own direct efforts

  • 6. Master Status: The status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.

  • Can be ascribed OR achieved (U.S. Mostly achieved)

    • Ex: Occupation, wealth, marital status, and parenthood…etc.

Types of roles
Types of Roles

  • 7. Reciprocal Roles: corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses… huh? Ok: How can you perform the role of husband if there is no one there to perform the roles of the wife? (other Ex: Doctor/Patient; Sales Clerk/Customer)(Mini play dialogue between two people: Conversation expectations)

    Ex: Doctor: “take a deep breath”Patient: “No” Now, how does the doctor fulfill his role as doctor?

Role expectation and role performance
Role Expectation and Role Performance

  • 8. Role Expectations: Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role

  • Ex: Police: “Protect and Serve”

  • 9. Role Performance: ACTUAL role behavior; does not always match behavior expected by society

  • Ex: Police brutality, child abuse…etc

Role conflict and role strain
Role Conflict and Role Strain

  • 9. Role Set: Different roles attached to a single status… Can lead to conflict

  • 10. Role Conflict: occurs when filling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status

  • Ex: “To be a good employee, one has to spend extra time at work; to be a good parent, one has to spend extra time at home” Both can NOT occur; a compromise has to be reached

  • 11. Role Strain: occurs when an individual has difficulty meeting expectations of a single status (ex: boss boosting morale and production

Basic needs of society
Basic Needs of Society

  • 12. Social Institution: When statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more needs of society

  • Needs…

  • -Provide physical and emotional support to members

  • -Transmit knowledge

  • -Produce goods and services

  • -maintain social control*

Sociology ch 4 sec 2

Sociology: Ch 4 Sec 2

“Types of Social Interaction”

Standards: 3.2, 3.5

Exchange theory
Exchange Theory

  • 13. Exchange: Whenever people interact in an effort to receive a reward or return for their actions

  • 14. Reciprocity: the idea that if you do something for some one, then that person “owes” you something in return… (Unwritten rule)

  • 15. Exchange Theory: People are motivated by “Self” interests in interactions with other people

  • People do things for rewards

  • Behaviors that are rewarded, are usually repeated


  • 16. Competition: Occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve goal that only ONE can attain (winners and losers; dodgeball debate)

  • Very Common in “Western” societies

  • 17. Conflict: is the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. (Few rules are often ignored)

4 sources of conflict
4 Sources of Conflict

  • Georg Simmel:

  • 1. Wars

  • 2. Disagreements within group

  • 3. Legal disputes

  • 4. Clashes over ideology

  • *Sometimes begin as competition

  • Read: “The Argument Culture” p. 70

Cooperation and accommodation
Cooperation and Accommodation

  • 18. Cooperation: two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person

  • 19. Accommodation: a state of balance between conflict and cooperation

    • COMPROMISE: We can rarely have everything that we want

    • Help to ensure social stability