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Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. Patrick Ji , Kevin Samuel, Anthony Lee Period 1 HAP. Endocrine system - a collection of glands that secrete different hormones for the various functions and chemical reactions occurring within the body

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Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

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Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

Patrick Ji, Kevin Samuel, Anthony Lee

Period 1


  • Endocrine system - a collection of glands that secrete different hormones for the various functions and chemical reactions occurring within the body

  • Maintain a stable environment within the body (homeostasis)

Function & Importance of Endocrine system

Thyroid and Parathyroid

  • Thyroid glands located in neck

    • Close to first part of trachea

  • Parathyroid glands protrude from the surface of thyroid glands


  • Thyroid glands:

    • Controls rate which body produces energy from nutrients

    • Secretes hormones that regulate energy

      • high production can causes weight loss, nervousness

      • Low production can cause slowing of bodily function

  • Parathyroid glands:

    • Control the level of calcium in blood

    • Produces hormone PTH which raises blood calcium level

  • Animation:


Thyroxin and Triiodothyronine

  • Thyroxin is the main hormone secreted into the blood stream by the thyroid gland.

  • It is inactive most of the time in the body until it become its active form of Triiodothyronine.

  • Animation:


  • Triiodothyronine is the active form of the thyroid hormone thyroxin.

  • Approximately 20% of triiodothyronine is secreted into the bloodstream directly by the thyroid gland.  The remaining 80% is produced from conversion of thyroxin by organs such as the liver and kidneys.


  • Thyroxin plays a vital role in regulating the body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and maintenance of bones.

  • Too much thyroxin results in a tumor and goiter in the neck.

  • Too little thyroxin results in autoimmune diseases and a decrease in metabolic rate.

Thyroxin and Triiodothyronine

  • Goiters ~ A thyroid goiter is a dramatic enlargement of the thyroid gland. Goiters are often removed because of cosmetic reasons or, more commonly, because they compress other vital structures of the neck including the trachea and the esophagus making breathing and swallowing difficult.

  • Hyperparathyroidism-

    No symptoms at all

    Confusion, foggy thinking

    Muscle cramps. A tingling sensation

    in the hands and feet.

    Loss of energy, always tired

    Trouble sleeping, waking up at night.

    Heredity. If other family members

    had hyperparathyroidism,

    you are at greater risk to develop the disease.


  • The thyroid is a small gland about the size of two joined cherries. It is situated at the front of your neck, just below the larynx.

  • The thyroid secretes (releases) three importanthormones – tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and calcitonin.


  • All patients with hyperparathyroidism will develop osteoporosis

  • There are no drugs that will make parathyroid disease better….None

Interesting Facts

1. What is a symptom of Hyperparathyroidism?

  • Sweating

  • Muscle atrophy

  • Fatigue

  • Loss of appetite

    2. What trouble can a goiter cause?

  • Headaches

  • Muscle pains

  • Hair thinning

  • Difficulty breathing

Concept Check

3. What happens when too little T3 and T4 comes out?

  • Sweating

  • Hyperactivity

  • Weight gain

  • Weight loss

    4. What is the function and importance of the Thyroid gland?

  • The thyroid plays an important role in regulating the body's metabolism and calcium balance. The T4 and T3 hormones stimulate every tissue in the body to produce proteins and increase the amount of oxygen used by cells.

Concept Check

  • Works Cited

  • "Endocrine System Function." Buzzle. Buzzle, n.d. Web. 2013. <>.

  • "Parathyroid Disease." Cedars-Sinal. Cedars-Sinal, n.d. Web. 2013. <>.

  • "Parathyroid Glands: Function." The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, n.d. Web. 2013. <>.

  • "Thyroid Gland Facts." House and Home. House and Home, n.d. Web. 2013. <>.


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