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What is the Internet? What is the Internet? A global network of networks What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

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what is the internet2
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks
what is the internet3
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
what is the internet4
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
what is the internet5
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
  • The computers connected to each network
what is the internet6
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
  • The computers connected to each network
  • A book of “IP” addresses that tells each computer where all the others are
slide7
IP???
  • IP = Internet Protocol – routes the packets
  • TCP = Transmission Control Protocol arrives in reliable order

TCP/IP describes the rules for transmitting small packets of bits (0s and 1s) from one computer to another.

what s in the packets
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
  • An addressee, e.g., [email protected]
  • Something to indicate order or sequence
  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)

How would that work here?…

delivering the message
Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 24?…

  • We need an address: 24.2.9.7

And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”
delivering the message11
Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 24?…

  • We need an address: 24.2.9.7

And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”
the lc dns server
The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

the lc dns server13
The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) #.side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

So where is 24.2.9.7?…

slide14
Now…
  • You try it….
pieces of the message
Pieces of the message…
  • Splenda works
  • As well
  • As sugar
  • For packet
  • Switching
slide16
Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, www.albany.edu

But it must have:

  • an IP address – 169.226.1.110
slide17
The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world, and they all know that:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

and vice versa.

slide18
The domain name has 2 parts – the host and top level domain (TLD).

www.albany.edu

albany = host

(really University at Albany)

.edu = top level domain= education

domain categories
Domain categories

Other top level domain categories in the U.S.:

  • .com – businesses
  • .edu – educational institutions
  • .gov – government agencies
  • .mil – military units
  • .net – networks
  • .org – non-profit organizations
the authority for domains
The authority for domains…

http://www.icann.org/

ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

Newest TLDs:

.mail – a site for anti-spam community

.kid -??thoughts??

next question
Next question…

When was the Internet?

when was the internet
When was the Internet?

1961 – WOW!!

Len Kleinrock (then at MIT) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!

when was the internet23
When was the Internet?

1965 – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Pentagon funded the first experimental connection between a computer at MIT and one in California… over a 1200 bps phone line.

when was the internet24
When was the Internet?

1966-69 – ARPA contract awarded to an architectural consulting firm to design and build “ARPANET,” the direct ancestor of today’s Internet, with a starting configuration of four nodes!

when was the internet25
When was the Internet?
  • 8/30/69UCLA
  • 10/1/69 SRI
  • 10/29/69

1st message, UCLA to SRI

  • 11/1/69 UCSB
  • 12/69 University of Utah
when was the internet26
When was the Internet?

By 1971, there were 23 “hosts” (computers) at 15 “nodes” in CA, UT, IL, MI, PA, & MA

when was the internet27
When was the Internet?

1972 @ as connector for userid and address

1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email

1975 – first mailing list, MsgGroup, forerunner of listservs

4/12/79 –the “emoticon” :-) smiles

when was the internet28
When was the Internet?

1980 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET

1984 – number of hosts breaks 1000, William Gibson coins “cyberspace”

1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000

1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000

1992 – number of hosts breaks 1,000,000

when was the internet30
When was the Internet?

1990 – original ARPANET shut down

1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software

1993 – First browser

1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online

1995 – Internet becomes commercial, AltaVista goes online in December

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