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What is the Internet? What is the Internet? A global network of networks What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

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What is the internet2 l.jpg
What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks


What is the internet3 l.jpg
What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)


What is the internet4 l.jpg
What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  • The computers connected to each network


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  • The computers connected to each network

  • A book of “IP” addresses that tells each computer where all the others are


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IP???

  • IP = Internet Protocol – routes the packets

  • TCP = Transmission Control Protocol arrives in reliable order

    TCP/IP describes the rules for transmitting small packets of bits (0s and 1s) from one computer to another.



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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)

  • An addressee, e.g., [email protected]

  • Something to indicate order or sequence

  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)

    How would that work here?…


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Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 24?…

  • We need an address: 24.2.9.7

    And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”


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Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 24?…

  • We need an address: 24.2.9.7

    And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”


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The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.


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The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) #.side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

So where is 24.2.9.7?…


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Now…

  • You try it….


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Pieces of the message…

  • Splenda works

  • As well

  • As sugar

  • For packet

  • Switching


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Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, www.albany.edu

    But it must have:

  • an IP address – 169.226.1.110


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The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world, and they all know that:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

and vice versa.


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The domain name has 2 parts – the host and top level domain (TLD).

www.albany.edu

albany = host

(really University at Albany)

.edu = top level domain= education


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Domain categories domain (TLD).

Other top level domain categories in the U.S.:

  • .com – businesses

  • .edu – educational institutions

  • .gov – government agencies

  • .mil – military units

  • .net – networks

  • .org – non-profit organizations


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The authority for domains… domain (TLD).

http://www.icann.org/

ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

Newest TLDs:

.mail – a site for anti-spam community

.kid -??thoughts??


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Next question… domain (TLD).

When was the Internet?


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1961 – WOW!!

Len Kleinrock (then at MIT) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1965 – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Pentagon funded the first experimental connection between a computer at MIT and one in California… over a 1200 bps phone line.


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1966-69 – ARPA contract awarded to an architectural consulting firm to design and build “ARPANET,” the direct ancestor of today’s Internet, with a starting configuration of four nodes!


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

  • 8/30/69UCLA

  • 10/1/69 SRI

  • 10/29/69

    1st message, UCLA to SRI

  • 11/1/69 UCSB

  • 12/69 University of Utah


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

By 1971, there were 23 “hosts” (computers) at 15 “nodes” in CA, UT, IL, MI, PA, & MA


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1972 @ as connector for userid and address

1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email

1975 – first mailing list, MsgGroup, forerunner of listservs

4/12/79 –the “emoticon” :-) smiles


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1980 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET

1984 – number of hosts breaks 1000, William Gibson coins “cyberspace”

1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000

1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000

1992 – number of hosts breaks 1,000,000


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).


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When was the Internet? domain (TLD).

1990 – original ARPANET shut down

1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software

1993 – First browser

1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online

1995 – Internet becomes commercial, AltaVista goes online in December


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