Vapor analyzing lunar regolith by pyrolysis mass spectrometry
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VAPoR: Analyzing Lunar Regolith by Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry. Daniel P. Glavin and the VAPoR Team NASA Goddard Space Flight Center [email protected] 9 th LESWG General Meeting October 18, 2007.

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Vapor analyzing lunar regolith by pyrolysis mass spectrometry

VAPoR: Analyzing Lunar Regolith by Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

Daniel P. Glavin and the VAPoR Team

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

d[email protected]

9th LESWG General Meeting

October 18, 2007


Volatile analysis by pyrolysis of regolith vapor team
Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) Team Spectrometry

Supported by IRAD and Lunar Sortie Science Opportunities (LSSO)

  • Daniel Glavin / 699 (Principal Investigator)

  • Rob Boyle / 552 (Thermal Design)

  • Eric Cardiff / 597 (Vacuum Pyrolysis Development)

  • Jason Dworkin / 691 (Lunar Science Definition)

  • Steve Feng / 564 (Electrical Systems)

  • Dan Harpold / 699 (Mass Spectrometer Design)

  • Andrew Jones / 543 (Mechanical Design)

  • Paul Mahaffy / 699 (Instrument Design)

  • Dave Martin / 599 (Systems Engineering)

  • Marla Moore / 691 (Cometary Ice Analogs)

  • Ed Patrick / 699 (VAPoR Breadboard)

  • Patrick Roman / 553 (Mass Spectrometer Development)

  • Tim Stephenson / 541 (Thermal Pyrolysis Development)

  • Inge Loes ten Kate / 699 (VAPoR Breadboard)

  • Steve Gorevan and Dustyn Roberts / Honeybee Robotics (Sample Carousel)


Is there water-ice at the lunar poles? Spectrometry

Clementine: High circular polarization ratio (CPR) over dark areas at poles; No enhancement in sunlit areas.

Bussey et al. 2005; Fristad et al. 2004

The source of enhanced hydrogen at the poles remains controversial. In situ measurements will be necessary to determine the composition, abundance, spatial distribution, and source of lunar volatiles.


Potential Sources of Lunar Volatiles Spectrometry

Earth

(contamination, possible terrestrial meteorites)

Solar wind (implanted H,C,N, He, Ne)

Moon (radioactive decay, outgassing)

Interplanetary dust particles

Comets and Asteroids (water-ice, organics?)


Lunar atmospheric composition experiment lace
Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE) Spectrometry

  • Magnetic deflection mass spectrometer (1 to 110 amu)

  • Measured surface atmospheric composition during Apollo 17

  • Detected H2, He, Ne, Ar and trace levels of CH4, NH3, H2O and CO2

  • Sources: chemical reactions with solar wind implanted ions, outgassing, and/or exchange with cold traps

LACE PI: John Hoffman

Surface regolith samples not analyzed by LACE


Vapor is a miniature version of sam
VAPoR is a Miniature Version of SAM Spectrometry

VAPoR SAM

Mass: 7-15 kg 40 kg

Power: 20-25 W 60-80 W

Data rate: 1 kbps <100 kpbs Volume: 19 dm3 68 dm3

Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR)


Key science objectives
Key Science Objectives Spectrometry

  • Determine the composition, abundance, spatial distribution, and source of lunar volatiles associated with polar hydrogen deposits.

  • Characterize the native lunar atmosphere at the poles.

  • Understand the processes by which terrestrial organics or volatiles are dispersed and/or destroyed on the Moon.

  • Evaluate the potential of the polar regolith for future in situ resource utilization (ISRU).

  • Identify potentially hazardous volatiles (e.g. radon)

VAPoR can address ALL of these lunar surface science measurement objectives


Vapor measurements of lunar atmosphere and regolith
VAPoR Measurements of Lunar Atmosphere and Regolith Spectrometry

C,H,O,N-Volatiles

Origin of Volatiles (Isotopes)

Noble Gases

Organics

Resources (ISRU)


Isotope measurements will help constrain the origin of lunar volatiles
Isotope measurements will help constrain the origin of lunar volatiles

Asteroid

Terrestrial Organics

Solar wind

e.g. D/H and 13C/12C ratios


Vapor can be integrated into an autonomous suitcase sized package
VAPoR can be integrated into an autonomous suitcase-sized package

Solid samples

Solid samples

Mass range: 1-250 amu

Mass range: 1-250 amu

>1200ºC

>1200ºC


Vapor model
VAPoR Model package

VAPoR instrument packaging optimized by D. Jones / 543


Sample manipulation system sms
Sample Manipulation System (SMS) package

S. Gorevan and D. Roberts (Honeybee Robotics)

Lunar regolith core samples collected robotically or by an astronaut and delivered to 6 cup exchangeable sample carousel.

VAPoR

Carousel inserted into VAPoR and sample cups individually heated for quantitative volatiles analysis.


Vacuum pyrolysis
Vacuum Pyrolysis package

  • Highly efficient way to extract volatiles from regolith

  • Lunar regolith must be heated to 1200-1400ºC to release oxygen (E. Cardiff and K. Neff)

  • SAM pyrolysis units designed to heat samples to 1100ºC max (P. Jordan)

  • High melting point materials for lunar pyrolysis cups (T. Stephenson)

  • VAPoR breadboard instrument tested at GSFC(I. L. ten Kate and E. Patrick)

SAM pyrolysis unit

Vacuum pyrolysis chamber


Knudsen pyrolysis cell package

VAPoR Prototype

Vacuum chamber

Evolved gas analysis of JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant heated to 1200ºC under vacuum

I. L. ten Kate and E. Patrick

QMS

RGA Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

H2

H2

Detection limit for water in the ppm range (~ 0.0001%)

H2O

H2

H2O

CO2

SO2

CO2

N2/CO

H2

H2O

CO2

N2/CO

O2

SO2

N2/CO


Mass spectrometer heritage
Mass Spectrometer Heritage package

Niemann et al. (1996)

Jupiter: Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

CONTOUR NGIMS

Saturn: Cassini-Huygens Probe GCMS


Miniature mass spectrometer development at goddard
Miniature Mass Spectrometer Development at Goddard package

Micro Electro Mechanical Sys-tems (MEMS) reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) currently under development at GSFC is one of the candidates for VAPoR.

(P. Roman, T. King ,and coworkers)


Future Opportunities package

  • Robotic Exploration?

  • Crater lander, hopper, rover, tetwalker

  • Determine H abundance, composition, and distribution at crater rim and interior

  • Measure variability and abundance of water-ice and other volatiles inside crater

  • ISRU enabling technology

  • Human Exploration (>2018)

  • Moon as test-bed for in situ volatile analyses to understand human contamination of atmosphere and regolith.

  • Ability to identify volatile-rich samples for return to Earth.


Please contact me about ideas or suggestions related to this study or future lunar mission concepts
Please contact me about ideas or suggestions related to this study or future lunar mission concepts…….

Email: [email protected]

Tel: x46361


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