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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK : BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION. Jee-Ann O. Borines Division Coordinator Grade II. THE CHALLENGE?. How does a teacher teach a child to read and develop love for reading?.

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theoretical framework beginning reading instruction
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK : BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION

Jee-Ann O. Borines

Division Coordinator Grade II

the challenge
THE CHALLENGE?

How does a teacher teach a child to read and develop love for reading?

slide3
If we are always arriving and departing. It is also true that we are eternally anchored. One\'s destination is never a place, nut rather a new way of looking at things.
slide4
If we are always arriving and departing. It is also true that we are eternally anchored. One\'s destination is never a place, but rather a new way of looking at things.
slide5
If we are always arriving and departing. It is also true that we are eternally anchored. One\'s destination is never a place, nut rather a new way of looking at things.

If we are always arriving and departing. It is also true that we are eternally anchored. One\'s destination is never a place, but rather a new way of looking at things.

core understandings about learning to read
Core Understandings About Learning to Read
  • Reading is a construction of meaning from written text. It is an active, cognitive and affective process.
  • Background knowledge and experience are critical to the reading process.
  • Social interaction is essential in learning to read.
  • Attitudes, motivation, interests, beliefs, feelings, and values influence children’s decisions to read and write.
  • Environments rich in literary experiences, resources and models facilitate reading development. Children need the opportunity to read, read and read.
slide7
Engagement in the reading task is key in successful learning to read.
  • Successful learners are motivated, strategic, knowledgeable and interactive.
  • Children develop phonemic awareness and knowledge of phonics through variety of literacy opportunities, models and demonstrations.
  • Children learn best when teachers employ variety of strategies to model and demonstrate reading knowledge, strategy and skills.
  • Monitoring the development of reading processes is vital to student success.
what reading is
What Reading Is
  • ► Reading is a complex, interactive process using basic skills and advanced strategies to make meaning.
  • ►Reading is not merely a skill ; it is an engagement of the person in a conceptual and social world. Engaged readers are strategic, knowledgeable, motivated and social in their approach to learning and using literacy.
  • ►Reading is the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation.
slide10

Increases confidence in expressing something

Opens doors

Develops imagination

Widens experience and understanding

Improves vocabulary

Helps develop interests

Improves thinking

Enables interactive communication

slide11

2C2IA

BEGINNING READING

INSTRUCTION MODEL

Giron, Labrador, Visaya,

Flojo, Cuanzon and

San Antonio, 2005

Adapted from:

The Cognitive Foundations

of Learning to Read

SEDL 2001

slide12

2C2IA

BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION MODEL

C

COGNITIVE

Reading

Comprehension

I

Language

Comprehension

Decoding

INTERACTIVE

Lexical

Knowledge

INTEGRATIVE

Linguistic

Knowledge

Cipher

Knowledge

Background Knowledge

Knowledge

of the Alphabetic

Principle

Letter

Knowledge

Phonology

Phoneme Awareness

Syntax

Semantics

Pragmatics

Concepts

About Print

AFFECTIVE

CONSTRUCTIVE

slide13

C

COGNITIVE

CONSTRUCTIVE

Giron, Labrador, Visaya,

Flojo, Cuanzon and

San Antonio, 2005

Adapted from:

The Cognitive Foundations

of Learning to Read

SEDL 2001

slide14

INTERACTIVE

I

INTEGRATIVE

slide15

Reading

Comprehension

Language

Comprehension

Decoding

Lexical

Knowledge

Linguistic

Knowledge

Cipher

Knowledge

Background Knowledge

Knowledge

of the Alphabetic

Principle

Letter

Knowledge

Phonology

Phoneme Awareness

Syntax

Semantics

Pragmatics

Concepts

About Print

AFFECTIVE

slide16

Language

Comprehension

Linguistic

Knowledge

Background Knowledge

Pragmatics

Phonology

Semantics

Syntax

Giron, Labrador, Visaya,

Flojo, Cuanzon and

San Antonio, 2005

Adapted from:

The Cognitive Foundations

of Learning to Read

SEDL 2001

slide17

Decoding

Lexical

Knowledge

Cipher

Knowledge

Knowledge

of the Alphabetic

Principle

Letter

Knowledge

Phoneme Awareness

Concepts

About Print

slide18

Reading

Comprehension

AFFECTIVE

slide19

2C2IA

BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION MODEL

C

COGNITIVE

Reading

Comprehension

I

Language

Comprehension

Decoding

INTERACTIVE

Lexical

Knowledge

INTEGRATIVE

Linguistic

Knowledge

Cipher

Knowledge

Background Knowledge

Knowledge

of the Alphabetic

Principle

Letter

Knowledge

Phonology

Phoneme Awareness

Syntax

Semantics

Pragmatics

Concepts

About Print

AFFECTIVE

CONSTRUCTIVE

Giron, Labrador, Visaya,

Flojo, Cuanzon and

San Antonio, 2005

Adapted from:

The Cognitive Foundations

of Learning to Read

SEDL 2001

slide20

2 C 2 I A

INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK

  • Activating Prior Experience/Knowledge
  • Building Background Knowledge
  • Developing/Previewing Vocabulary
  • Setting the Purpose for Reading Predicting

PREREADING

  • Interacting with the Text
    • Teacher/student generated Questions
    • Cognitive, Metacognitive and Affective Strategies
    • Self-Monitoring and Fix-up Strategies

ACTIVE

READING

*DISCOVERING THE MAGIC OF READING

STRATEGIC READING

*DEVELOPING ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES

*CONSTRUCTING MEANING

  • Integration
    • Language Structures / Functions
    • R-W Link
    • Content Areas
    • Multiple Intelligences
  • Deciphering and Decoding Strategies and Skills
    • Word Recognition

Phonemic Awareness

Phonics

Morphemic Analysis

Word Analysis in Context

Sight Words

    • Reading Sub-skills

POST

READING

FLEXI GROUPS DIFFERENTIATED

Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and San Antonio, 2005

Shared/Whole

Class

Small Groups

Independent

slide21

The 2C2IA Instructional Framework

I. Objective / s

A. Skills

B. Strategies

C. Value / s

II. Subject Matter

A. Story

B. Comprehension Skills / Strategies

C. Language Structure

D. Deciphering and Decoding

E. Writing

F. Reference / s

G. Materials

III. Learning Activities

A. Discovering the Magic of Reading ( DMR )

1. Pre – Reading

1.1. Motivation and Building Background

1.2. Unlocking of New Words

1.3. Motive Question

slide22
B. Constructing Meaning ( CM )

2. Active Reading

2.1. First Reading

( Teacher reading the story showing each page with the illustrations to the pupils )

2.2. Second Reading

( Give pupils a chance to interact with the text. After reading a page or several pages, ask questions to help pupils predict and monitor their comprehension )

3. Post Reading

3.1. Answering the motive question

3.2. Group Activity / Discussion

C. Developing English Language Competencies ( DELC )

1. Preparatory Activities

1.1. Drill

1.2. Review

1.3. Motivation

slide23
2. Lesson Proper

2.1. Presentation

2.2. Oral Practice

2.3. Generalization

2.4. Guided Practice

2.5. Independent Practice

2.6. Application

2.7. Evaluation

D. Deciphering and Decoding : Strategies and Skills ( DDSS )

1. Presentation of the Beginning and Ending Sound

1.1. Sound Presentation

1.2. Practice Exercises

1.3. Writing Activity

1.4. Generalization

1.5. Application

1.6. Further Practice

1.7. Differentiated Activities for Group Work

1.8. Evaluation

slide24

READING

    • Vocabulary
  • Use pictures, realia, and demonstrations to get the meaning of words.
    • Comprehension
  • Answer wh- questions. Sequence events. Interpret feelings of characters. Predict outcomes.
    • Decoding
  • Identify and produce beginning and ending sound of Mm. Isolate and blend sounds

LANGUAGE

Name animals

Make animal sounds

Use the structure

The _____ says _____

WRITING

Write capital and

small letter Mm

GMRC

Respect for the rights of others.

MIMI

and the

MOUSE

MATHEMATICS

Tell the concept of cardinal numbers

SCIENCE

Identify pets

Identify animal sounds

Take care of pets

MUSIC

Sing songs such as:

Catch the Mouse and Old McDonald Had a Farm

ART EDUCATION

Color mugs/bowls

Finger paint animals

Draw a pet animal

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Play the game, Catch the Mouse.

Make animal movements

slide25

Cluster 1 Lesson 1

THE BEGINNING AND ENDING SOUND OF Mm.

I. Objectives

A. Skills

1. Give the meaning of new words through pictures, actions and realia.

2. Answer wh- questions in the story listened to.

3. Interpret feelings of the characters.

4. Sequence events as they happened in the story.

5. Predict outcomes.

slide26

6. Respond to the story through the following engagement activities.

Group 1: Draw pictures of the animals in the story.

Group 2: Act out portions of the story.

Group 3: Illustrate main characters’ feelings

Group 4: Sequence events in the story.

7. Identify animal sounds.

8. Identify/ Recognize and produce beginning and ending sound of Mm.

9. Isolate and blend sounds in words.

10. Write big and small letter Mm.

slide27

B. Strategies

  • 1. Read aloud 2. Questioning 3. Predicting
      • 4. Summarizing
  • 5. Phoneme Isolation and Blending
  • C. Value/s
  • Respect for the rights of others.
slide28

II. Subject Matter

A. Story: “Mimi and the Mouse”

Author: Perla H. Cuanzon

Illustrator: Larry A. Diolola

B: Comprehension Skills/ Strategies: Answering wh- questions, predicting, sequencing events,

retelling.

C. Language Structure: The __________ says __________.

slide29

D. Deciphering and Decoding: Beginning and ending sound of Mm.

E. Writing: Writing big and small Mm

F. Reference/s: BEC – PELC Grade I, Listening 1.3, p.7 Speaking

G. Materials: Big Book, flipcharts, cut- outs, real objects, pictures, songs, charts.

slide30

PREREADING

III. Learning Activities

A. Discovering the Magic of Reading (DMR)

1. Prereading

1.1 Motivation and Building Background

a. Ask: Do you have pets at home? What is your pet? What does your pet do?

Activating Prior knowledge

slide31

Showing the picture of a boy with a cat, say, “Mico has a pet cat.” Let the pupils

describe Mico’s cat. Then have them tell what they think his cat does. Write the

words that the pupils give in the word map.

slide32

b. Introduce the big book. Display the cover. Point to the title explaining that these words are called title and that a title is the name of the story. Say: The title of the story is “Mimi and the Mouse.” Point to and read the author’s and illustrator’s names, explaining to the children that an author is a person who writes the story and an illustrator is one who draws the pictures for the story. Say:

This story is written by Perla H. Cuanzon and illustrated by Larry A. Diolola.

slide33

Talk about the title and ask the pupils to predict what the story might be about.

Preview the book’s illustration on page 1 to help children make their predictions.

Ask: Would you really want to know what the story is about? I will read to you the story. But there are some words which may be new or which you may not understand.

slide34

1.2 Unlocking of New/ Difficult Words

a. bowl, fresh milk

Using real objects/ pictures, unlock the words bowl and fresh milk. Say: I have here a bowl. Mother puts milk in the bowl. Ask: What is a bowl? Do you use a bowl, too? Do you drink milk? What milk do you drink? Show the picture of a man milking a cow or carabao. Say: The milk from this cow or carabao is fresh milk. You can buy fresh milk in the supermarket.

slide35

b. trips, hits, spills

Present the illustration on page 10 and unlock the words trips, hits, and spills. Ask: What can you say about this? What happens to the milk? (spills) Why? Show how Mimi trips and hits the bowl. Say: Mimi trips and hits the bowl

slide36

1.3. Motive Question

Present the cover of the big book again showing Mimi and the Mouse.

Ask: What questions about the story come to mind when you see this picture?

Expected questions:

Why is the mouse with the cat?

Will they fight with each other?

Which of the two animals will drink the milk in the bowl?

slide37

ACTIVE

READING

2. Active Reading

2.1. First Reading

Open the book and read the story showing each page with the illustrations to the pupils.

2.2 Second Reading

Give pupils a chance to interact with the text. After reading a page or several pages, ask questions to help pupils predict and monitor their comprehension.

slide38

MIMI AND THE MOUSE

Mimi sits on a mat one morning.

“Meow! Meow! Meow! says Mimi

“There’s fresh milk in the bowl.

Mmmmm…….Mmmm…..MMmmmm!” says Mimi.

Suddenly, a mouse comes out.

“Squeak! Squeak! Squeak!” says the mouse.

“Meow! Meow! Meow!”

“My milk! My milk! shouts Mimi.

Mimi runs after the mouse.

The mouse runs around the bowl.

“My milk! My milk!” shouts Mimi

Mimi trips and hits the bowl.

The milk spills on the mat.

“Oh my! Oh my! My milk on the mat!”

“Meow, meow, meow.”

I

N

T

E

R

A

C

T

I

N

G

W

I

T

H

T

E

X

T

Why do you think Mimi says meow?

What do you think will the mouse do?

What do you think will Mimi do?

What do you think will happen?

What happens to the milk?

How does Mimi feel about it?

slide39

POST

READING

3. Postreading3.1. Lead the class to answer the motive questions. 3.2. Divide the class into 4 groups and give each group an activity. The discussion of the story follows and the small group activities are presented as the discussion goes on.

slide40

Group 3:How does Mimi feel at the beginning of the story? at the end? In circle1, draw Mimi’s face when she sees the bowl of fresh milk. In circle 2, draw Mimi’s face when the milk is spilled.

slide41

C. Developing English Language Competencies (DELC)

1. Preparatory Activities

Say: All around us we hear different sounds. What sounds do you hear now? What sounds do you hear in the morning? In the afternoon? At night?

slide42

Show pictures of the words in the box.

Let the pupils look at the pictures and call on individual pupils to select one. Paste the picture in Circle A if it produces a sound. Paste the picture in Circle B if it doesn’t produce a sound. Select one object from Circle A. (The teacher may modify this activity when needed.)

ball bell apple cellphone

TV table car alarm clock

A

B

slide43

2. Lesson Proper

2.1. Presentation

a. Go back to the story, “Mimi and the Mouse.” Ask: What are the animals in the story? (cat and mouse) Show the picture of Mimi in the big book. Ask: What sound does the cat make? What does the cat say? (The cat says meow, meow, meow.) Show the picture of a mouse. Ask: What does the mouse say? (The mouse says squeak, squeak, squeak.)

b. Let the pupils listen to the song, “Old McDonald Had a Farm.” Then ask them what animals are mentioned in the song. Ask the pupils to sing the song while substituting numbers 2, 3 and 4.

slide44

Old McDonald Had a Farm

1. Old McDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.

And on his farm he had a cow, E-I-E-I-O.

With a “moo-moo” here and a “moo-moo” there,

Here a “moo, there a moo”

Everywhere a “moo-moo.”

Old McDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.

2. Duck – quack-quack

3. Horse – neigh-neigh

4. Other animals and their sounds.

slide45

c. Show pictures of the following animals and ask the pupils to give the sounds of the animals in the pictures

d. Conduct a question-and-answer exercise. Introduce the function words to be used in the sentence structure. The (animal) says (sound).

Ask: What sound does the dog make? The cow? The goat?

The __________ says (bow, wow, wow)

(moo, moo, moo)

(mee, mee, mee)

slide46
2.2. Oral Practice

a. Show the class pictures of animals in the box below. Call on some pupils to choose the animals that they would like to have as pet.

b. Divide the class into the different categories of animals that they chose.

Ask: What sound does the dog make? The Dog group says: The dog says, bow wow wow.” Do this until all the groups were asked and have answered using the structure. The (animal) says (sound).

slide47

2.3 Generalization

Ask: What sound does the dog make?

Guide the pupils to say: Animals make different sounds.

2.4 Guided Practice

a. Let the pupils sing the following song to the tune of “Incy, Wincy Spider.”

The little dog says, “Bow,wow,wow.”

The little cat says, “Meow, meow, meow.”

The little duck says, “Quack, quack, quack.”

And they all sound it loud.

Oh listen, oh listen

They’re all talking now.

slide48

b. Ask the pupils to substitute the names of the animals and the sounds that they make.

bird- tweet tweet tweet

goat – mee, mee, mee

monkey – kraa, kraa, kraa

slide49

c. Divide the class into groups. Then assign an animal for each group. When the teacher calls the name of the animal, the group will make the sound as they perform movements imitating the animals.

2.5 Independent Practice

Let the pupils do a dyad. Say: Get a partner. One will give the sound of an animal and the other will say the sentence. The (animal) says (sound).

slide50

2.6 Application

Have the class play a game of naming sounds produced by animals. Start by throwing a ball to a pupil and asking, “What sound does the __________make?” The pupil who catches the ball answers the question by saying. The __________ says __________. Then he throws the ball to another pupil and asks about the sound another animal makes. Continue playing the game until almost all pupils have answered the question using the given structure.

slide51

2.7 Evaluation

Show pictures of the following animals. Listen as I say each animal sound. On your paper, write A, B, or C to identify the animal that makes the sound.

(Teacher reads the choices and pupils write A, B, or C on their answer sheets.)

1. Quack! Quack!

A B C

2. Meow! Meow!

A B C

duck

chicken

horse

dog

cat

snake

slide52

3. Moo! Moo!

A B C

4. Squeak! Squeak!

A B C

5. Hiss! Hiss!

A B C

horse

cow

goat

lizard

mouse

bird

snake

goat

carabao

slide53
D. Deciphering and Decoding: Strategies and Skills (DDSS)

1. Presentation of the Beginning and Ending Sound of Mm.

1.1 Say: Listen to some words taken from the story.

Mimi meow mat

milk my mug

mouse me morning

1.2 Ask: What sound do you hear at the beginning of the words? /m/ Say: Repeat the words after me. (Read each word to them again as they repeat after you.) This time, I am going to say the first sound and the remaining sound in the word. Repeat after me. If I say /m/ ….at, say mat. Blend these word parts.

/m/….ilk milk /m/…ouse mouse /m/… y my

/m/…ug mug /m/…e me /m/…eow meow

Help the children hear how the word parts are blended by extending the first sound such as m-m-m-m-m-m-mat.

slide54
1.3 Teach a song to the tune of “London Bridge is Falling Down.” Write the song on a chart. Sing the song and track the print as you sing. Sing the song several times to encourage the children to sing the song.

Teacher’s Version Pupil’s Version

What’s the first sound /m/ is the first sound

That you hear (3x)? That we hear (3x).

What’s the first sound /m/ is the first sound

That you hear That we hear

In milk, milk, milk? In milk, milk, milk

Tell the pupils to substitute these words: mouse, mat, meow, my, me for milk and I for we when responding individually.

slide55

1.4. Say: Listen to the story about monkeys. Look at this picture that shows Mother Monkey and the young monkeys. Write the story on a chart. Find out what happened in the story.

Mother Monkey’s Guessing Game

Three monkeys were waiting for someone

at home. Soon, Mother Monkey came with a basket

in her hand. So, the monkeys ran to meet her.

Mother Monkey said, “Guess what I have for

you. Listen.”

It begins with /m/.

And it ends with /ilk/.

Put them together,

What is it? (It’s milk.)

slide56

1.5 Repeat the chant for mug, mask and match.

1.6 Ask: What did Mother Monkey have for the three monkeys? (mat, milk, mug, mask, match). What is the first sound you hear in each word? /m/.

Mother Monkey made the monkeys guess the other things in the basket. She said:

It begins with /h/. It begins with /j/

And it ends with /am/ And it ends with /am/

Put them together. Put them together.

What is it? (It’s ham.) What is it? (It’s jam.)

slide57

1.7 Apply the song “London Bridge is Falling Down” for the words ending in /m/ to answer the question: “What’s the last sound that you hear?”

1.8 Teach a song to the tune of “Happy Birthday.”

Can you say the last sound? (2x)

It’s the last sound in ham.

Can you say the last sound?

Substitute the words jam, drum, broom, cream for ham.

slide58

2. Writing Letter Mm

2.1 Presentation of the Big and Small Letter Mm.

Ask: What sound did we learn today? /M/. This is a small letter m. It is also sounded as /m/.

2.2 Writing of Mm

Demonstrate how to write Mm on the blackboard. Guide the writing in the air, on one’s palm, on one’s seat or table or on a classmate’s back.

2.3 Have the pupils trace the dots to form Mm on the blackboard and on their worksheet. Have them show their work to their seatmates and to the class.

slide59

3. Further Practice

3.1 Show pictures of the words in the box. Name each picture. If the picture name begins with /m/, write B. If the picture name ends with /m/, write E. Do this exercise on your paper.

3.2 Read the directions for the exercise, “Messy Mushroom” in the flip chart. Say: Get your paper and draw a line to divide it into 2 columns. Copy the picture names that begin with Mm on the left side of your paper and the picture names that end with m on the right side of your paper.

slide60

4. Enrichment Activity

Show pictures of the ten words below. Ask the class to listen as you name each picture. If the name begins with /m/, write B on your paper. If the name ends with /m/, write E.

slide61
5. Differentiated Activities for Group Work

man

magnet

milk

mushroom

mitten

mouse

mask

map

mug

mat

moon

mop

slide62

moon

mask

medal

map

mug

man

magnet

mouse

net

man

bag

mouse

mask

flower

mushroom

fan

mop

box

slide63

mushroom

3+4 = 7

slide66

B. Provide a worksheet with the following pictures. Encircle the beginning sound of the pictures.

  • milk m r n
  • mask r m n
  • Mico M N H
  • moon n m l
  • mop m h k

Seatwork 2

A. Provide a worksheet with the following pictures.

  • jam 3. sum

ja __ su __

  • map 4. drum

ma__ dru __

slide67

B. Coloring pictures whose names end with /m/.

1. ham 5. jam

2. map 6. palm

3. moon 7. Sam

4. milk 8. mouse

slide68

N

M

H

M

W

m

r

n

m

h

slide71

money

ham

mask

slide74

GIVE

EVERY KID

A HAND

give every kid a hand

The first six years of a child’s life are critical, the experts tell us.

That’s when their characters are formed.

That’s when learning is slowly making a mark.

GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

slide76

GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

That’s when caring counts.

Someone just to hold them.

Unfortunately, for many of the world’s children that’s just what they don’t get..

slide77

And society suffers as a result. Because a deprived child has a lot less chance of growing up as an adjusted adult - a reader, a thinker, a life-long learner, ready to face the world.

Some of us believe we can change things… or at least try…

And we need your help

GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

slide78

GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

Maybe you’ll help one to learn -

to read and write

to laugh, to love, to live --

Maybe you’ll just be the hand that holds out a little hope.

slide79

GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

To give a kid a hand is to give a gift that lasts forever—

The gift of reading.

slide80

THANK YOU

GOD BLESS ALL YOUR EFFORTS !!

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