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Preventing behavior problems Rules – did you cover everything? Consequences – did you ever talk to the student? Include the parents? Communicating rules – have principal agree to your rules and consequences Letters home – start with positive and state your overview of the program

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Preventing behavior problems

  • Rules – did you cover everything?

  • Consequences – did you ever talk to the student? Include the parents?

  • Communicating rules – have principal agree to your rules and consequences

  • Letters home – start with positive and state your overview of the program


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Block Scheduling

  • How will you divide your time?

  • What are different methods of teaching?


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Direct teaching:

  • Most teachers use this

  • You explain and demonstrate a skill and everyone practices the same skill at the same time and they same way and the teacher gives feedback

  • Saves instructional time and is good when the material can be learned in a strictly sequential, progressive manner.

  • Does NOT help with skills requiring higher-order thinking & unstructured organization.


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Teaching styles

  • The following styles are on a continuum from the command style, for which the teacher makes all of the decisions to the self-teaching style where the students make nearly all of the decisions

  • EVERY style has a place depending on the situation (time and environment), students, teachers, and content


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1. Command Style

  • Teacher makes all the decisions.

  • Teacher gives step by step instructions

  • All students perform the same task at the same time

  • Often appropriate for the initial learning stages, especially where safety is a concern

  • Also appropriate when instructional time is limited or student behavior dictates a highly structured class routine


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2. Practice Style

  • Most commonly used style in PE

  • Teacher determines what is taught, introduces the skills and tasks through demonstration or the use of task cards.

  • Student determine the number of practice trials and often the order in which they will practice the skills

  • Teacher circulates throughout the class giving feedback and answering questions

  • Good for initial state of learning and when you don’t have a lot of instructional time.

  • Better than command, because students have more time to practice skills and have more responsibility for their learning


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3. Reciprocal

  • Students give each other feedback

  • Teacher determines the task they practice and identify crucial features for them

  • Before this, you check for understanding by providing a number of demonstrations that include common errors, asking students to identify the errors and you give appropriate feedback

  • Students work in pairs and the observer gives the doer feedback – a check list or criteria sheet helps

  • Teacher communicates only with the observer

  • Helps with social skills

  • Limit to review of previously learned information


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4. Self- Check

  • Teacher determines the task the student will practice and identify the critical features.

  • The feedback comes from the student

  • Should be skills where they can clearly see results.

  • Helps them become more self-reliant, but does limit interactions with others – not really appropriate for middle schoolers


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5. Inclusion

  • Teacher determines the task and its critical features, but you also give the students a choice of performance levels for the task from which they may select the level of practice that they think is right for them.

  • May change size and weight of an object; size; distance, and height of a target; body position, etc.

  • It is the students’ responsibility to determine when they are ready to move to a more difficult performance level


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6. Guided Discovery

  • Teacher determines the task and then arranges a sequence of problems or questions that, when solved by the students, leads to the one correct response.

  • Students must give a verbal or motor response to each prompt

  • Must give the students enough time to think through each question or problem

  • May need to adjust prompts if all or most of students respond incorrectly

  • Your goal is to logically guide students

  • Takes time, BUT students will learn material


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7. Convergent Discovery

  • Student goes though the discovery process without any clues from you

  • Should master guided discovery first

  • Must select activities through which the students are able to discover the correct answer.


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8. Divergent Production

  • A problem-solving style

  • You select a task and design a problem that can be solved in a variety of ways. Then ask students to find solutions and evaluate the effectiveness of each.

  • Improve motor skills by showing students many different ways to accomplish tasks

  • Best for learning tasks similar to tasks students have already mastered.

  • Great at developing social skills


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9. Individual Program-Learner’s Design

  • Teacher chooses the general subject material, but you allow the learner to choose the specific question and determine possible solutions.

  • We don’t use this much yet – but with more emphasis on individualized learning, we will


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10. Learner Initiated

  • Learner initiates the style for themselves. The student approaches you and states their desire to initiate and conduct learning activities.

  • We don’t use this much, yet


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11. Self-teaching

  • Exact opposite of command style

  • Doesn’t exist in the classroom, but it does in real life.

  • Encourages students to pursue their own educational interests, based on their own capabilities and needs both outside the school setting and when possible within the school setting.


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