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SenseCam & memory rehabilitation. Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Narinder Kapur Steve Hodges, Lyndsay Williams, Gavin Smyth, James Srinivasan, Alex Butler, Alban Rrustemi, Ken Wood. Background. Cambridge Memory Clinic, Addenbrooke’s Hospital . Causes and treatment of memory loss.

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sensecam memory rehabilitation

SenseCam & memory rehabilitation

Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Narinder Kapur

Steve Hodges, Lyndsay Williams, Gavin Smyth, James Srinivasan, Alex Butler, Alban Rrustemi, Ken Wood

background
Background
  • Cambridge Memory Clinic, Addenbrooke’s Hospital
causes and treatment of memory loss
Causes and treatment of memory loss
  • Neurodegenerative disease
    • Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy Body dementia can be treated with medication – with limited success
    • No medical treatment for other dementias
    • External memory aids (in theory)
  • Acquired brain injury (traumatic and non-traumatic)
    • External memory aids (in theory)
improving memory with sensecam
Improving memory with SenseCam
  • Different types of memory:
    • Episodic – things you have done (personal experiences)
    • Semantic – facts and concepts
    • Prospective – things you intend to do (go shopping, visit friends, make and keep appointments)
  • Almost all memory aids treat prospective memory
improving memory with sensecam5
Improving memory with SenseCam
  • Episodic memory critical to quality of life
    • Forms basis for semantic memories
    • Guides actions, creates bonds, builds self-concept
  • SenseCam records experiences
    • Captures events from patient’s point of view
    • Without conscious thought or intrusion
    • Plays back quickly in simple-to-use, easy-to-view ‘movie’
  • Subsequent viewing of image sequences
    • Cues recall & so consolidates storage of memories
improving memory with sensecam6
Improving memory with SenseCam
  • Cambridge Memory Clinic, Addenbrooke’s Hospital
  • 63 year old, well-educated, married woman ‘Mrs B’
  • Diagnosed with limbic encephalitis in 2002
  • Now has marked amnesia
    • usually no memory a couple of days after event
improving memory with sensecam7
Improving memory with SenseCam
  • Goals of patient and husband
    • To improve Mrs B’s episodic memory
    • To share experiences with each other
    • To improve Mrs B’s self-esteem and confidence
improving memory with sensecam8
Improving memory with SenseCam
  • Study Protocol
    • Experimental condition: SenseCam used to record ‘special’ days (N=9)
    • Control condition: written diary used to record ‘special’ days (N=3)
    • Baseline condition: no memory aid used to help recall ‘special’ days (N=2)
    • Information reviewed every 2 days for 2 weeks
    • Memory evaluated before each review
results

Baseline

Results

Results

Memory of an event over time

Proportion of event remembered

Days elapsed following event

results10

Baseline

Diary

Results

Results

Memory of an event over time

Proportion of event remembered

Days elapsed following event

results11

Baseline

Diary

SenseCam

Results

Results

Memory of an event over time

Proportion of event remembered

Days elapsed following event

results12

Baseline

Diary

SenseCam

Results

Results

Memory of an event over time

Proportion of event remembered

Days elapsed following event

results sensecam feedback
Results: SenseCam feedback
  • Results from patient’s point of view:
    • More relaxed socially and less anxious
    • Sharing experiences again was a ‘sheer pleasure’
    • Seeing images brings memories ‘flooding back’
    • ‘It has enormous potential as a memory aid and has been a great success for us personally’
results sensecam feedback14
Results: SenseCam feedback
  • Publications
    • Berry, E., Kapur, N., Watson, P., Smith, R., Williams, L., & Wilson, B. (in press). The use of SenseCam as a pictorial diary to improve autobiographical memory in a patient with limbic encephalitis: A preliminary report. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.
    • Hodges, S., Williams, L., Berry, E., Izadi, S., Srinivasan, J., Butler, A., Smyth, G., Kapur, N., & Wood, K. SenseCam: A retropsective memory aid. To appear in UbiComp 2006, 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, September 17-21, 2006.
    • Tan, D., Berry, E., Czerwinski, M., Sellen, A., Bell, G., Gemmell, J., Hodges, S., Kapur, N., Meyers, B., Oliver, N., Robertson, G., & Wood, K. (in press). Supporting human memory with a personal digital lifetime store. To appear in J. Teevan & W. Jones (Eds.), Readings in Personal Information Management. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
ongoing research msrc
Ongoing research: MSRC
  • SenseCam as an episodic memory aid in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease
  • SenseCam as an episodic memory aid in other patients with memory loss
  • SenseCam factors facilitating consolidation
    • Image-reviewing schedules
ongoing research collaborative work
Collaborations agreed/underway with:

Professor Narinder Kapur, Head of Neuropsychology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge

Professor Adam Zeman, Professor of Cognitive and Behavioural Neurology, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter

Professor Jon Evans, Professor of Applied Neuropsychology, University of Glasgow

Dr Chris Butler, Clinical Research Fellow, Department of Neurology, University of Edinburgh

Dr Nick Alderman, Consultant Neuropsychologist, St Andrews Hospital, Northampton

Professor Barbara Wilson, Senior Scientist, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge

Professor John Hodges, Professor of Behavioural Neurology, University of Cambridge

Professor Phillip Barnard, Research Scientist, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge

Professor Martin Conway, Director of Research & ESRC Professorial Fellow, Leeds Memory Group, University of Leeds

Dr Andrew Bateman, Clinical Director, Oliver Zangwill Centre of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, Ely

Ongoing research: collaborative work
ongoing research collaborative work17
Ongoing research: collaborative work
  • John Hodges, Professor of Behavioural Neurology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital
    • Mild Cognitive Impairment
    • Early Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Adam Zeman, Professor of Cognitive & Behavioural Neurology, Exeter
    • Epileptic amnesia
    • Semantic dementia
  • Oliver Zangwill Centre, Cambridge
    • Brain Injury Rehabilitation
    • Therapy
ongoing research collaborative work18
Collaboration with Martin Conway, Professor of Cognitive Psychology, Leeds Memory Group, Editor of the journal Memory

SenseCam is potentially ‘the first truly powerful 21st century memory stimulant’ which could generally improve and strengthen memory in normal aging populations and in those with brain disease

Ongoing research: collaborative work
ongoing research collaborative work19
Ongoing research: collaborative work
  • Undertaking SenseCam memory studies based on two hypotheses:

1. SenseCam movies mimic episodic memory

      • Visual
      • From ‘egocentric’ point of view
      • Temporally ordered
      • Formed outside awareness
      • Time compressed
      • Correspond to changes in goal-directed behaviour
    • Using SenseCam in experimental studies
      • Investigating extent to which SenseCam stimulates recall and strengthens learning
      • Asking ‘How do we forget over time?’ and ‘How do our memories decline with age?’
ongoing research collaborative work20
Ongoing research: collaborative work
  • Professor Conway’s hypotheses cont’d…

2. SenseCam movies stimulate brain regions important for memory consolidation

      • Hippocampus and related memory structures
      • Neural networks not easily activated otherwise
    • Using SenseCam in neuroimaging studies
      • Investigating the functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory in the normal population and in patients
final words
Final words
  • SenseCam may be an extremely powerful aid for people with memory disorders
  • SenseCam may be a potential ‘innoculation’ against memory decline in the normal ageing population
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