B. E. PROJECT DRAG FORCE ANALYSIS OF CAR PROJECTEES ABHISHEK KUMAR RAVISHEK KUMAR ASHWIN TEMBHURNEY ABHISHEK GOMASE GUIDE

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B. E. PROJECT DRAG FORCE ANALYSIS OF CAR PROJECTEES ABHISHEK KUMAR RAVISHEK KUMAR ASHWIN TEMBHURNEY ABHISHEK GOMASE GUIDE Prof. R. M. Metkar SESSION 2005-2006 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING G. H. RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NAGPUR.

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B. E. PROJECT

DRAG FORCE ANALYSIS OF CAR

PROJECTEES

ABHISHEK KUMAR RAVISHEK KUMAR

ASHWIN TEMBHURNEY ABHISHEK GOMASE

GUIDE

Prof. R. M. Metkar

SESSION 2005-2006

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

G. H. RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,

NAGPUR.

CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Motivation
• Regimes of External Flow
• Profile Drag
• Minimizing Drag on a LMV
• Expression For Drag Force
• Stream-lined and Bluff Body
• Components of Drag
• Thrust Vs Speed of Car
• Geometry generation in pro/e wildfire
• Analysis in CFD Tutor 1.1
• Calculations and Result
• Limitations
• Conclusion
• References
INTRODUCTION
• Decreasing the fuel consumption of road vehicles.
• Drag is one of the most important issues when it comes to Aerodynamics design of road vehicles
MOTIVATION
• Designing a vehicle with a minimized drag resistance provides economy and performance advantages.
• The main motivation for reducing drag resistance is:

• Fuel consumption reduction

• Performance increasing

REGIMES OF EXTERNAL FLOW

FLOW REGIMES AROUND AN IMMERSED BODY

PROFILE DRAG

• Pressure drag
• Friction drag

Profile drag = Pressure drag + Friction drag

PRESSURE DRAG AIRFLOW ORIENTATION

Expression For Drag Force
• The Drag force value for a moving vehicle is given by the following expression.

DF =1/2 A ρ CD V2

where ,

CD is the drag coefficient

A is the projected frontal area of the vehicle

ρ is the density of air

V is the speed of the vehicle relatively to the air

MINIMIZING DRAG ON A LMV(CAR)

SHAPE OF VEHICLE’S BODY

GEOMETRY GENERATION IN PRO/E WILDFIRE

DIMENSIONS : OVERALL LENGH 3335 mm

OVERALL WIDTH 1440 mm

2D SKETCH OF MARUTI 800

ANALYSIS IN CFD TUTOR 1.1

PRE- PROCESSING IN CFD TUTOR 1.1

Grid Generation for Maruti 800

PROCESSING OPERATIONS IN CFD TUTOR 1.1

Pressure distribution along the body of car

POST PROCESSING OPERATION IN CFD TUTOR 1.1

Pressure Distribution along the shape of car

CALCULATIONS AND RESULT

Drag Force, DF = 1/2 A ρ CD V2 ------------------------------ ----I

Pressure Drag, P = ∆P * A ------------------------------------------II

Equating Equation I and II, we get

∆P * A = 1/2 A ρ CD V2

Therefore, CD = 2 ∆P/ ρ V2 --------------------------------------III

For Mach No. = 0.05 (60 Km/hr)

Pmax = 1.0669 *105 Pa

Pmin = 1.0086* 105 Pa

∆P= 5830 Pa

ρ = 1.125 kg/m3

Vmax = 1.246 m3/ s

Put the values in equation III, we get

CD = 0.667

LIMITATIONS

• Space Constraint
• Styling may be the most flagrant example:

certain ‘look\'. This concept is today very

different from the aerodynamically ‘ideal’

car.

• Drag and Lift Relation
CONCLUSION
• Smooth vehicle shape, rounded corners.
• Tapered rear end.
• Minimized body seams.
• Substitution of rear view mirrors with Cameras.
• Smooth underbody.
REFERENCES
• Paper: Inchul Kim and Xin Geng, [2002], “Optimization of Body Shape

through Computation of Aerodynamic Forces on Low Mass Vehicle

(LMV)”, Department Of Mechanical Engineering, University Of

Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Mi 48128.

• Paper: Alexander Diehl, Jose Nuno Lopes, Rui Miranda, Christoffer

Mursu Simu and John Viji, autumn 2002, “Reducing Drag Forces

in Future Vehicles”, Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics,

Chalmers, University of Technology.

• Paper: Frederque Muyl, Laurent Dumas and Vincent Herbert, [October

2001], “Hybrid method for Automotive Shape Optimization in

Automotive Industry, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Centre technique,

Veliz Villacoublay, France

• Book: Fluid Mechanics By John F Douglas, Janusz M Gasiorek and John