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PREHISTORY. PERIOD IN WHICH OUR ANCESTORS EXISTED ON EARTH BUT HAD NOT YET INVENTED WRITING OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEM COMES FROM SCATTERED AND SCARCE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

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Prehistory l.jpg
PREHISTORY

  • PERIOD IN WHICH OUR ANCESTORS EXISTED ON EARTH BUT HAD NOT YET INVENTED WRITING

  • OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEM COMES FROM SCATTERED AND SCARCE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

  • BECAUSE OF LACK OF WRITTEN EVIDENCE WE CAN ONLY SPECULATE ON WHAT THEY THOUGHT ABOUT, HOW THEY ORGANIZED THEMSELVES, HOW THEY INTER-RELATED WITH EACH OTHER, AND WHY AND HOW THEY BEHAVED THE WAY THEY DID


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MOST LIKELY THEORY FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN BEINGS

  • 3 MILLION YEARS AGO

  • SMALL APE-LIKE CREATURES APPEAR ON SHORES OF SEVERAL EAST AFRICAN LAKES

  • BECAUSE OF LARGER BRAIN CAPACITY THEY BECOME DOMINANT SPECIES IN REGION

    • DEVELOPED COMPLEX SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

    • ABILITY TO MAKE AND USE TOOLS AND WEAPONS


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EVOLUTION

  • NATURAL SELECTION

    • BIOLOGICAL PROCESS IN WHICH THE BEST TRAITS IN A SPECIES ARE PASSED ON AND AMPLIFIED FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION WHILE NEGATIVE TRAITS GENERALLY ARE NOT

  • RESULTED IN DEVELOPMENT CREATURES WHICH WERE STRONGER, SMARTER, AND LESS APE-LIKE IN APPEARANCE


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MIGRATION

  • MIGRATION TO OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA AND FINALLY OUT OF AFRICA

  • SIMULTANEOUS EVOLUTION, POPULATION INCREASE, AND MIGRATION RESULTED IN APPEARANCE OF HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS AROUND 200,000-100,000BCE

  • MARKED BEGINNING OF PALEOLITHIC AGE


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VARIATION

  • Behavior patterns developed based on environment where humans lived

    • People in northern climates developed custom of wearing clothing and use of fire

    • People in southern climates were not under similar pressure to wear clothing and were slower to use fire

  • Minor biological variations also appeared in response to environmental conditions

    • People in southern climates retained high proportion of melanin in their skin pigment

      • Protects skin from sun

      • Makes skin darker


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PALEOLITHIC LIFESTYLE

  • EXCLUSIVELY HUNTERS AND GATHERERS

  • NO PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS

    • LIVED IN TEMPORARY SHELTERS AND MOVED WHENEVER FOOD SUPPLIES RAN LOW

  • LIVED IN BANDS OF APPROX. 30 PEOPLE

  • COOPERATED TOGETHER TO OBTAIN FOOD AND FOR DEFENSE

  • PRIMITIVE, NOMADIC PEOPLE BY MODERN STANDARDS


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PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS I

  • MADE AND USED TOOLS

    • VARIETY OF MATERIALS

      • STONE

      • WOOD

      • BONE

    • CORRESPONDED TO IDEAS THEY HAD IN THEIR MINDS FIRST

    • PRESERVED THEM FOR FUTURE USE

    • TAUGHT OTHERS HOW TO MAKE AND USE THEM

    • LATER GENERATIONS WOULD IMPROVE ON WHAT THEY HAD BEEN TAUGHT AND MAKE BETTER ONES

      • RESULTED IN CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT IN HUMAN TECHNOLOGY


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PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS II

  • SPOKEN LANGUAGE

    • CAPACITY TO DESCRIBE THINGS

    • TO NAME THINGS

    • SHARE KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCES, AND FEELINGS WITH OTHERS

  • RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

    • BELIEVED FORCES OF NATURE WERE LIVING THINGS THAT HAD TO BE APPEASED IN ORDER TO PERSUADE THEM TO BEHAVE IN A BENEFICIAL MANNER

    • PRACTICE OF BURIAL OF DEAD

      • INDICATED BELIEF IN AFTERLIFE


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PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS III

  • ART

    • PAINTED ON ANY AVAILABLE SURFACE BUT ONLY ONES DONE IN CAVES HAVE SURVIVED

    • MOTIVATED BY MAGIC

      • DESIRE TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL HUNT


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BIRTH OF NEOLITHIC AGE

  • DISCOVERY OF AGRICULTURE

    • 8000 BCE

    • MIDDLE EAST

    • BARLEY AND RYE

    • MOST LIKELY DISCOVERED BY WOMEN

  • ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    • SHEEP AND GOATS

  • TOGETHER, THEY MADE POSSIBLE A MORE RELIABLE SOURCE OF FOOD THAN HUNTING AND GATHERING HAD


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ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE I

  • ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS

  • POPULATION GROWTH AND CONCENTRATION OF PEOPLE

  • TRADE

    • TRADED FOOD SURPLUS TO OTHER REGIONS IN EXCHANGE FOR COMMODITIES FARMERS NEEDED BUT DIDN’T PRODUCE THEMSELVES

      • SALT

      • VOLCANIC GLASS

      • IRON ORE

  • INTERNAL TRADE WITHIN NEOLITHIC VILLAGES ALSO DEVELOPED

    • EXCHANGE OF FOOD FOR ITEMS SUCH AS POTTERY, TOOLS, ETC.

    • DIVISION OF LABOR


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ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE II

  • AWARENESS OF PRIVATE PROPERTY

  • DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL HIERARCHY AND GOVERNMENT

    • RULING ELITE EMERGES AS SOME PEOPLE ACQUIRED MORE LAND THAN OTHERS

      • GAINED POWER OVER THOSE WHO DIDN’T OWN AS MUCH AS THEY DID


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SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE I

Catal Huyuk

Oldest Neolithic settlements found in the Middle East

8000 BCE

Jarmo

Jericho


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SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE II

  • AGRICULTURE LATER APPEARED IN OTHER PARTS OF WORLD

    • EITHER INDEPENDENTLY OR AS RESULT OF EXPOSURE TO OLDER AGRICULTURAL REGIONS

  • NEOLITHIC AGE DID NOT APPEAR EVERYWHERE AT THE SAME TIME

    • FIRST IN MIDDLE EAST

    • LATER IN OTHER PARTS OF WORLD


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NEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY I

  • POTTERY CONTAINERS

    • FOR STORING FOOD AND WATER

  • WHEEL AND SAIL

    • IMPROVED WATER AND LAND TRANSPORTATION

  • PLOW

    • MADE AGRICULTURE EASIER AND MORE PRODUCTIVE


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NEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY II

  • DISCOVERY OF METAL

  • FIRST METAL TO BE USE WAS COPPER

    • EASILY SHAPED

    • ENABLED BROKEN TOOLS AND WEAPONS TO BE RECAST AND RESHAPED

  • NEXT METAL WAS BRONZE

    • ALLOY OF COPPER AND TIN

    • HARDER AND MORE DURABLE THAN COPPER

    • MADE POSSIBLE BETTER TOOLS AND WEAPONS WITH SHARPER CUTTING EDGES


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