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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT. Tissues and Structures Involved Muscle Nerve Bone Cartilage What are Tendons? Role of Joints Mechanics of Joints Making it all work. Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit. Motor neurons review Ventral horn spinal cord

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Mechanics of movement l.jpg
MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

  • Tissues and Structures Involved

    • Muscle

    • Nerve

    • Bone

    • Cartilage

  • What are Tendons?

  • Role of Joints

  • Mechanics of Joints

  • Making it all work

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


Nerve and muscle the motor unit l.jpg
Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit

  • Motor neurons review

    • Ventral horn spinal cord

    • Ventral root to spinal nerve to dorsal or ventral ramus

    • Nerve is bundle mixed neurons

    • One motor neuron synapes with several muscle cells

  • Motor Unit is one motor neuron plus the muscle cells it synapses

  • “Action potential”--controlled conduction of electrical messages in neurons and muscle by depolarization of cell membrane

Fig. 14.6, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Neuro-Muscular Junction

Action potential in nerves triggers chemical release at synapse which triggers action potential in muscle

Fig. 14.5, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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See also photo in Fig. 10.2 from M&M to see capillaries around muscle cells

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Bone and Cartilage around muscle cells

  • Bone as tissue

  • Bones as structures formed from bone, cartilage and other tissues

  • Location of cartilage in skeleton and relation to joints

Fig. 6.1, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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HOW MOVEMENT HAPPENS: around muscle cellsMuscles Pull on Tendons to Move Bones at Connections called Joints or Articulations

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Tendon around muscle cells

  • Generally regular connective tissue

  • Musculo-skeletal connections

    • Muscle to bone

    • Muscle to muscle

    • Bone to bone

Fig. 4.15f, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Tendons around muscle cells

  • Tendons are structures that connect bone to muscle and are made up of tendon tissue

  • Can have various shapes

  • Typical is cord-like tendon of biceps

  • Sheeths are common--”aponeuroses” e.g. acromiotrapezius origin from thoracic vertebral spines

Fig. 10.3, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Ligaments

Fig. 9.12, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Joints or Articulations are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Connections between bones

  • Usually, but not always allow for movement

  • Formed from various connective tissues

    • Fibrous

    • Cartilaginous

    • Synovial (most complex--typical limb joints)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


Fibrous joints l.jpg
Fibrous joints are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Suture

    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber

    • Only found in skull

  • Syndemoses

    • Bones connected by ligaments

    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna

  • Gomphoses

    • Peg in socket joint

    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 a, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


Fibrous joints12 l.jpg
Fibrous joints are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Suture

    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber

    • Only found in skull

  • Syndemoses

    • Bones connected by ligaments

    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna

  • Gomphoses

    • Peg in socket joint

    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 b, M&M

Fig. 8.4, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


Fibrous joints13 l.jpg
Fibrous joints are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Suture

    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber

    • Only found in skull

  • Syndemoses

    • Bones connected by ligaments

    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna

  • Gomphoses

    • Peg in socket joint

    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 c, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Cartilaginous Joints are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Synchondrosis

    • Hyaline cartilage unites bones

    • Epiphyseal growth plates

    • Costal cartilage-sternum

  • Symphyses

    • Fibrocartilage unites bones

    • Pubic symphysis

    • Intervertebral disc

Fig. 9.2, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


Synovial joints l.jpg
Synovial Joints are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Most common joints in body

  • Most mobile joints

  • Have

    • Articular surfaces on bone with hyaline cartilage

    • Completely enclosed joint capsule formed from ligamentous connective tissue

    • Synovial fluid within capsule lubricates joint

    • Some have meniscus or articular disc(e.g. knee, jaw joint)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Also see Fig. 9.3, M&M are made up of tendinous tissue as well

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Synovial Joint Shape Types are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • Plane joints--intercarpal joints

  • Hinge joints--elbow,ankle, interj-phalangeal

  • Pivot joints--radio-ulnar joint

  • Condyloid joints (egg into oval)--metacarpo-phalangeal

  • Saddle joints--carpo-metacarpal joint of thumb

  • Ball-and-socket--hip, shoulder

    The type of joint, in part, determines the range and direction of movement

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Fig. 9.9, M&M are made up of tendinous tissue as well

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement are made up of tendinous tissue as well


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X-ray of hand affected by arthritis are made up of tendinous tissue as well

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Artificial Hip Joint are made up of tendinous tissue as well

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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Arthritis Information are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • From American Physical Therapists Association (good preventative info)

  • Arthritis stats from CDC (leading cause of disability)

  • Health Info from NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement


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