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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT. Tissues and Structures Involved Muscle Nerve Bone Cartilage What are Tendons? Role of Joints Mechanics of Joints Making it all work. Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit. Motor neurons review Ventral horn spinal cord

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mechanics of movement
MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT
  • Tissues and Structures Involved
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
    • Bone
    • Cartilage
  • What are Tendons?
  • Role of Joints
  • Mechanics of Joints
  • Making it all work

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

nerve and muscle the motor unit
Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit
  • Motor neurons review
    • Ventral horn spinal cord
    • Ventral root to spinal nerve to dorsal or ventral ramus
    • Nerve is bundle mixed neurons
    • One motor neuron synapes with several muscle cells
  • Motor Unit is one motor neuron plus the muscle cells it synapses
  • “Action potential”--controlled conduction of electrical messages in neurons and muscle by depolarization of cell membrane

Fig. 14.6, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

neuro muscular junction
Neuro-Muscular Junction

Action potential in nerves triggers chemical release at synapse which triggers action potential in muscle

Fig. 14.5, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

slide4

See also photo in Fig. 10.2 from M&M to see capillaries around muscle cells

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

bone and cartilage
Bone and Cartilage
  • Bone as tissue
  • Bones as structures formed from bone, cartilage and other tissues
  • Location of cartilage in skeleton and relation to joints

Fig. 6.1, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

slide6
HOW MOVEMENT HAPPENS: Muscles Pull on Tendons to Move Bones at Connections called Joints or Articulations

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

tendon
Tendon
  • Generally regular connective tissue
  • Musculo-skeletal connections
    • Muscle to bone
    • Muscle to muscle
    • Bone to bone

Fig. 4.15f, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

tendons
Tendons
  • Tendons are structures that connect bone to muscle and are made up of tendon tissue
  • Can have various shapes
  • Typical is cord-like tendon of biceps
  • Sheeths are common--”aponeuroses” e.g. acromiotrapezius origin from thoracic vertebral spines

Fig. 10.3, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

ligaments

Ligaments connect bone-to-bone or reinforce joints--they are made up of tendinous tissue as well

  • E.g. knee ligaments
Ligaments

Fig. 9.12, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

joints or articulations
Joints or Articulations
  • Connections between bones
  • Usually, but not always allow for movement
  • Formed from various connective tissues
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial (most complex--typical limb joints)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

fibrous joints
Fibrous joints
  • Suture
    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
    • Only found in skull
  • Syndemoses
    • Bones connected by ligaments
    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
  • Gomphoses
    • Peg in socket joint
    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 a, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

fibrous joints12
Fibrous joints
  • Suture
    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
    • Only found in skull
  • Syndemoses
    • Bones connected by ligaments
    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
  • Gomphoses
    • Peg in socket joint
    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 b, M&M

Fig. 8.4, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

fibrous joints13
Fibrous joints
  • Suture
    • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
    • Only found in skull
  • Syndemoses
    • Bones connected by ligaments
    • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
  • Gomphoses
    • Peg in socket joint
    • Only found in teeth/alveoli

Fig. 9.1 c, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous Joints
  • Synchondrosis
    • Hyaline cartilage unites bones
    • Epiphyseal growth plates
    • Costal cartilage-sternum
  • Symphyses
    • Fibrocartilage unites bones
    • Pubic symphysis
    • Intervertebral disc

Fig. 9.2, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

synovial joints
Synovial Joints
  • Most common joints in body
  • Most mobile joints
  • Have
    • Articular surfaces on bone with hyaline cartilage
    • Completely enclosed joint capsule formed from ligamentous connective tissue
    • Synovial fluid within capsule lubricates joint
    • Some have meniscus or articular disc(e.g. knee, jaw joint)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

slide16

Also see Fig. 9.3, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

synovial joint shape types
Synovial Joint Shape Types
  • Plane joints--intercarpal joints
  • Hinge joints--elbow,ankle, interj-phalangeal
  • Pivot joints--radio-ulnar joint
  • Condyloid joints (egg into oval)--metacarpo-phalangeal
  • Saddle joints--carpo-metacarpal joint of thumb
  • Ball-and-socket--hip, shoulder

The type of joint, in part, determines the range and direction of movement

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

slide20

Fig. 9.9, M&M

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

x ray of hand affected by arthritis
X-ray of hand affected by arthritis

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

artificial hip joint
Artificial Hip Joint

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

arthritis information
Arthritis Information
  • From American Physical Therapists Association (good preventative info)
  • Arthritis stats from CDC (leading cause of disability)
  • Health Info from NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

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