International marketing im
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International Marketing (IM). Chapter 16. International Marketing. Introduction strategy and international marketing Marketing mix standardization versus customization Product-related issues Pricing issues Promotion: advertizing. Defining International Marketing.

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International marketing im

International Marketing (IM)

Chapter 16


International marketing

International Marketing

  • Introduction

    • strategy and international marketing

  • Marketing mix

    • standardization versus customization

    • Product-related issues

    • Pricing issues

    • Promotion: advertizing


Defining international marketing

Defining International Marketing

  • Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

  • International marketing is the extension of these activities across national boundaries.


Strategy im

Strategy & IM

  • International marketing strategy should support the firm’s overall business strategy whether it is differentiation, cost leadership, or focus (Ch 10). For example, if a firm is following an overall strategy of differentiation, managers should develop a marketing strategy that differentiates the firm’s products or services from those of competitors.


Strategy im1

Strategy & IM

  • Similarly, if a firm is following an overall cost leadership strategy, marketing managers should focus on keeping prices and distribution costs low. Finally, if a firm is following an overall focus strategy, managers should adjust the marketing mix to target the needs of the various selected segments.


Strategy im2

Strategy & IM

  • Decisions about whether and how to enter a particular market must also be consistent with the firm’s overall strategy.


Marketing mix

Marketing Mix

  • International marketing managers must address four issues: how to develop the firm’s product(s); how to price those products; how to sell those products; and how to distribute those products to the firm’s customers. The elements are collectively known as the marketing mix (and are also referred to as the four Ps of marketing).


Fig 16 2 the marketing mix

Fig 16.2 The Marketing Mix


Complications for international marketing vs marketing in the home nation

Complications for International Marketing vs Marketing in the Home Nation

  • There will often be differences in laws across nations. Such differences can affect any and all portions of the marketing mix

  • National culture - Same idea as above

  • Geography - Same idea as above

  • Economic forces influence income level, infrastructure, and the composition of goods and services demanded in a given nation


Standardization vs customization

Standardization vs Customization

  • Compared to their domestic counterparts, international marketing managers face a more complex set of issues and decisions related to the marketing mix. One overriding issue is whether a firm should standardize its offerings or customize for each market.


Standardization vs customization1

Standardization vs Customization

  • International marketing managers usually choose among the following approaches when deciding the extent to which to standardize their firm’s marketing mix: an ethnocentric approach (market products internationally the same way it does domestically), a polycentric approach (customize the marketing mix to meet the needs of each target market), or a geocentric approach (adopt a standardized marketing mix for all markets based on an analysis of customer needs).


Standardization vs customization2

Standardization vs Customization

  • The ethnocentric approach is easy to use, however, it may not be desirable because sales may be lost as a result of failing to consider the needs of foreign customers. The polycentric approach, while costly, may actually serve to increase a firm’s revenues because the needs of local customers are being met.


Standardization vs customization3

Standardization vs Customization

  • The geocentric approach, because it involves standardization of the marketing mix, allows a firm to sell essentially the same product using essentially the same approach in all of its markets.

  • Most firms seek to fall in the middle of a continuum between standardization and customization, attempting to follow a policy of “think locally, act globally.”


Standardization vs customization4

Standardization vs Customization

  • Standardization implies a centralized organizational design, while customization implies that a decentralized design should be adopted (see Chapter 13). Various factors can affect the decision to standardize or customize the marketing mix (see slide entitled “Complications for International Marketing vs Marketing in the Home Nation”).


Advantages and disadvantages of standardizing the marketing mix

Reduces marketing Costs

Promotes efficiency in R&D

Leads to economies of scale in production

Reflects trend towards single global marketplace for many types of products

Ignores different conditions of product use

Ignores local legal differences

Ignores differences in buyer behavior

Ignores other differences in individual markets

Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardizing the Marketing Mix


Advantages and disadvantages of customizing the marketing mix

Advantages and Disadvantages of Customizing the Marketing Mix

  • The advantages and disadvantages of customizing the marketing mix are the mirror image of those for standardizing the marketing mix.

  • The lists given for this topic in these notes slightly differ from those found in the textbook because points omitted here are only classifiable as disadvantages or advantages in specific kinds of situations.


Marketing mix product policy

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Product comprises both the set of tangible factors (the physical product and its packaging) that the consumer can see or touch and numerous intangible factors (such as image, installation, warranties, and credit terms).


Marketing mix product policy1

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Firms must decide to what extent they will standardize or customize their product offerings across markets.

  • There are two broad target groups of customers: industrial users and consumers. Industrial products are more likely to be standardized than consumer products.


Marketing mix product policy2

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Product policies may be affected by the laws and regulations of host countries. For example, countries may impose labeling requirements, health standards, technical standards, and so forth on consumer products.


Marketing mix product policy3

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Product policies may have to be adapted to meet the differing cultural needs of a firm’s target markets. For example, packaging may need to be changed to reflect the local language, the ingredients of food products may need to be changed to fit local preferences, and quality levels may need to be perfected.


Marketing mix product policy4

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Product policies may be affected by economic factors. For example, a country’s level of economic development might affect product feature decisions, a country’s infrastructure might affect the design of some products, and/or product support services available.


Marketing mix product policy5

Marketing Mix: Product Policy

  • Firms that are able to standardize brand names, in spite of any pressures that may exist to vary the product across nations, may achieve substantial reductions in packaging, design, and advertising production costs. Firms with standardized brand names may also benefit from “spillover effects” from one market to the next.


Marketing mix pricing issues

Marketing Mix: Pricing Issues

  • Pricing directly impacts a firm’s revenues and helps shape a firm’s competitive environment.

  • The task of pricing is complex for international firms because the cost of doing business varies from country to country, as do transportation costs and differences in distribution systems.

  • In addition, pricing can be affected by fluctuating exchange rates.


Marketing mix pricing issues1

Marketing Mix: Pricing Issues

  • International firms typically use one of the following pricing policies: standard pricing, two-tiered pricing, or market pricing.

  • A standard price policy (the same price is charged for products regardless of where they are sold or the nationality of the customer) is usually used by a firm that sells goods that are easily tradable and transportable. Firms selling commodity goods in competitive markets also frequently adopt this strategy.


Marketing mix pricing issues2

Marketing Mix: Pricing Issues

  • A two-tiered pricing policy (one price is set for all domestic sales, and a second is set for all international sales) is usually adopted by firms following ethnocentric approaches to marketing. This type of policy is frequently followed by firms that are at the start of the internationalization process and may create a situation whereby the firm is vulnerable to dumping charges (Ch 5).


Marketing mix pricing issues3

Marketing Mix: Pricing Issues

  • A market pricing policy (prices are customized on a market-by-market basis) is usually used by firms following a polycentric approach to marketing.

  • There must be different demand and/or cost conditions in each country it serves for this pricing policy to prove workable.


The 3 risks of market pricing

The 3 Risks of “Market Pricing”

  • First, a brand can be damaged if the same product is sold in a premium category in one or more markets and an economy category in other markets.

  • Second, a gray market (also known as parallel importing) can develop as arbitrageurs capitalize on price differences between markets.

  • Third, a firm may encounter consumer resentment against price discrimination.


Promotion in im

Promotion in IM

  • Promotion encompasses all efforts by an international firm to enhance the desirability of its products among potential buyers.

  • The promotion mix--advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations--is used to motivate potential customers to buy the firm’s product.


Promotion in im advertizing

Promotion in IM: Advertizing

  • What constitutes “effective” advertizing is strongly influenced by national culture, economic factors, and to some extent by geography. National laws and regulations will also influence what advertizers can and cannot do.


Promotion in im advertizing1

Promotion in IM: Advertizing

  • And yet, despite an often strong incentive to design advertizing campaigns on a national basis, there are also strong financial incentives to standardize advertizing campaigns where possible.


International marketing1

International Marketing

  • Introduction

    • strategy and international marketing

  • Marketing mix

    • standardization versus customization

    • Product-related issues

    • Pricing issues

    • Promotion: advertizing


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