Facility Layout. Cody Comerford Dustin Kovar Michelle Keehan. What is Facility Layout?. Layout decisions entail determining the placement of departments, work groups within the departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a production facility.
Layout decisions entail determining the placement of departments, work groups within the departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a production facility.
Objectiveis to arrange these elements in a way that ensures a smooth work flow (in a factory) or a particular traffic pattern (in a service organization)
Also called a job shop or functional layout
General purpose & flexible resources
Lower capital intensity & automation
Higher labor intensity
Resources have greater flexibility
Processing rates are slower
Material handling costs are higher
Scheduling resources & work flow is more complex
Space requirements are higher
Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique
the program calculates the effect on total cost of exchanging departments
attempts to minimize materials-handling cost by calculating cost, pair-wise interchanging departments, calculating more costs until a good solution is obtained
It is a heuristic program. It uses a simple rule of thumb in making evaluations: “Compare two departments at a time and exchange them if it reduces the total cost of the layout.” This type of rule is obviously necessary to analyze even a modest size layout.
It does not guarantee an optimal solution.
CRAFT is biased by its starting conditions: where you start (that is, the initial layout) will determine the final layout.
Starting with a reasonably good solution is more likely to yield a lower-cost final solution, but it does not always. This means that a good strategy for using CRAFT is to generate a variety of different starting layouts to expose the program to different pairwise exchanges.
It can handle up to 40 departments and rarely exceeds 10 iterations in arriving at a solution.
CRAFT departments consist of combinations of square modules (typically representing floor areas 10 feet by 10 feet). This permits multiple departmental configurations, but often results in strange departmental shapes that have to be modified manually to obtain a realistic layout.
A modified version called SPACECRAFT has been developed to handle multistory layout problems
CRAFT assumes the existence of variable-path material handling equipment such as forklift trucks. Therefore, when computerized fixed-path equipment is employed, CRAFT’s applicability is greatly reduced
Involves developing a relationship chart showing the degree of importance of having each department located adjacent to every other department
From this chart, an activity relationship diagram, similar to the flow graph used for illustrating material handling between departments, is developed
The SLP approach has been quantified for ease of evaluating alternative layouts
Overstates the pressure of assembly-line work
Step 5Assign tasks to the first workstation until the sum of the task times is equal to the workstation cycle time, or no other tasks are feasible because of time or sequence restrictions. Repeat for other workstations.
Split the task
Share the task
Use parallel workstations
Use a more skilled worker
Unequal workstation times can be solved through line layout:
Flexible Line Layouts
U-shaped line layouts
Process Layouts Product Layouts
Products:large #, different small # efficiently
Resources:general purpose specialized
Facilities: more labor intensive more capital intensive
Flexibility:greater relative to market lower relative to market
Processing slower faster
Handling costs:high low
Space requirements:higher lower
Grouping parts into families that follow a common sequence of steps. This step requires developing and maintaining a computerized parts classification and coding system.
Identifying dominant flow patterns of parts families as a basis for location or relocation of processes.
Physically grouping machines and processes into cells. Often there will be parts that cannot be associated with a family and specialized machinery that cannot be placed in any one cell due to its general use.
Parts that undergo similar processes, are put together into cells.
Process flow before GT cells.
Process flow after the use of GT cells.
Taco Bell Restaurant Floor Plans
The trend in office layout is toward more open offices, with personal work spaces separated only by low divider walls.
Companies have removed fixed walls to foster greater communication and teamwork.