Communication Styles

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10/18/2011. D. Protti (communications styles.ppt). 2. Communication style is a function of communication behavior. Communication behavior is a function of personality. 10/18/2011. D. Protti (communications styles.ppt). 3. Outline. IntroductionCommunications BehaviorsExercise (self)Communication Styles Exercise (small groups)Friction FactorsConclusion.

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Communication Styles

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1. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 1 Communication Styles Calgary Regional Health Authority July 21, 1999 Next time: new examples for semantic message failure (not enough people play bridge), e.g. code blue in a hospital, military codes Increase putting people at ease at beginning - more humour; maybe ice breakers More space on blue sheets to write in (3 lines rather than just 2) Add in materials re: people changing their taits (e.g. aggressiveness training) Clarify that seconday style is not a repeat of primary styleNext time: new examples for semantic message failure (not enough people play bridge), e.g. code blue in a hospital, military codes Increase putting people at ease at beginning - more humour; maybe ice breakers More space on blue sheets to write in (3 lines rather than just 2) Add in materials re: people changing their taits (e.g. aggressiveness training) Clarify that seconday style is not a repeat of primary style

2. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 2

3. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 3 Outline Introduction Communications Behaviors Exercise (self) Communication Styles Exercise (small groups) Friction Factors Conclusion

4. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 4 Primary Reference Phillips Bob The Delicate Art of Dancing with Porcupines: Learning To Appreciate the Finer Points of Others Regal Publishing, 1989

5. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 5 Caveats (What we will not cover) Verbal Communication Skills Written Communications Skills Presentation Skills Feedback Skills Listening Skills Communicating to the Masses

6. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 6 Warning This short session is only an appetizer

7. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 7 A person who, for some reason, seems to bristle upon our approach, leaving communication as we know it completely out of the question? Have you ever met someone with whom you just could not communicate?

8. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 8 Have you ever been misunderstood by someone? Have you ever said or did something, with pure motives and good intentions, which was misinterpreted?

9. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 9 Which is more important in social interactions and interpersonal relationships? The actual behavior or the motivation behind the behavior?

10. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 10 No matter how important our motives are, people read us by what they see and hear not by what we want them to see and hear

11. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 11

12. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 12 Our ability to understand how people see and hear us is critical to effective communications

13. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 13 Communications Theory as per Shannon

14. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 14 Communications Theory Communications is the exchange of ideas (messages) through a common set of symbols Whenever information is gained and uncertainty is reduced, communication has taken place

15. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 15 Communications Process/System Originator: The source of the messages that are to be transferred to the receiver. There are an almost unlimited variety of permissible message types. Encoder: Operates on the message to transform it into a signal form that can be transmitted over the communication channel (medium). Channel: The communication path over which the signal is transmitted to the receiver. Decoder: Usually performs the inverse function of the transmitter to yield a reconstruction of the message. Receiver: The intended termination of the message transfer.

16. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 16 Encoding (human communications) The process by which a communicator’s idea is translated into the symbols of language and thus into a message that can be transmitted to someone else. The message, because it employs a common set of symbols, should be understood by other people who know the communicator’s language.

17. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 17 English is a crazy language There is no egg in eggplant nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France. If the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn't the plural of booth beeth? One goose, 2 geese. So one moose, 2 meese? Doesn't it seem crazy that you can make amends but not one amend

18. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 18 Communications channel (medium) The medium is the carrier of the message and is objectively visible. Oral communications uses hearing (symbols based on sound) written documentation uses vision or touch non-verbal communications may use at least 4 of the 5 senses

19. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 19 Decoding (human communications) The process by which the transmitted message is converted into an abstract idea in the mind of the person to which the communication is directed The term “noise” refers to the factors that can distort a message Noise can occur in any stage of the process

20. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 20 Problems in a communication system Technical Accuracy: Just how accurately are the message symbols transferred from the message source to the destination? Semantic Accuracy: How accurately is the semantic meaning of the messages transferred from the message source to the destination? These semantic problems are concerned with how closely the destination interprets the knowledge conveyed by the message to the knowledge intended by the sender. Effectiveness: How effectively does the received message control the system in the intended fashion?

21. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 21 Semantically challenged communications By the time he was admitted, his rapid heart had stopped, and he was feeling better. Patient has chest pain if she lies on her left side for over a year. On the second day the knee was better and on the third day it had completely disappeared The patient states there is a burning pain in his penis which goes to his feet.

22. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 22 Semantic accuracy is very much influenced by non-verbal communications What are the six forms of non-verbal communications?

23. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 23 Forms of non-verbal communications Paralinguistics: a form of language in which meaning is conveyed through variations in speech qualities such as: loudness pitch rate hesitations

24. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 24 Forms of non-verbal communications Kinesics: the use of: gestures facial expressions eye movements body postures in communicating emotions

25. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 25 Forms of non-verbal communications Haptics: the use of touch in communicating, as in: a handshake a pat on the back an arm around the shoulder a hug etc.

26. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 26 Forms of non-verbal communications Chronemics: communicating status through the use of time, e.g.: making people wait allowing some people to go ahead of others etc.

27. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 27 Forms of non-verbal communications Iconics: the use of physical objects or office designs to communicate status or culture such as: display of trophies diplomas pictures with important people etc.

28. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 28 Forms of non-verbal communications Dress: communicating values and expectations through clothing and other dimensions of physical appearance

29. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 29 How important are non-verbal communications? What percentage of the message transfer do they account for?

30. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 30

31. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 31 Communication Behavior Follows Four Specific Patterns Hippocrates called these four temperaments Carl Jung called them Intuitor, Thinker, Feeler, Sensor Myers & Briggs refer to them as Perceptive, Intuitive, Sensing, Judging Cathcart and Allessandra call them Relator, Socializer, Thinker, Director Carlson Learning Company refer to them as Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness Smalley calls them Lion Kings, Otters, Golden Retrievers, Beavers Etc..

32. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 32 Exercise (self) So what do you think you are? Take a few minutes to complete the yellow sheet (both sides) by yourself Ask yourself What do I do more often? Which choice is more comfortable to me?

33. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 33 So what do you think you are? People who associate themselves with column AS are “Askers” People who associate themselves with column TE are “Tellers” While these traits are neither good nor bad, extremes in either case can be dangerous in relationships

34. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 34 So what do you think you are? (cont’d) Askers in comparison to Tellers tend to be: less assertive less aggressive more introverted

35. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 35 So what do you think you are? (cont’d) People who associate themselves with column TA are “Task-oriented” People who associate themselves with column RE are “Relationship-oriented” Neither trait is better than the other; they are merely descriptive of two different behaviors

36. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 36 Merrill and Reid Classification Scheme Analyticals: Askers who are more Task-oriented Drivers: Tellers who are more Task-oriented Amiables: Askers who are more Relationship-oriented Expressives: Tellers who are more Relationship-oriented

37. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 37

38. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 38 Remember These exercises are geared to reveal traits of behavior, not personality traits or motivation for behavior Personality is a much broader and more subjective topic Combining your behavior style (asker or teller) with your behavior orientation (task or relationship) will reveal your personal social style

39. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 39 Social styles theory suggests that we each have a primary social style and a strong secondary social style It is our secondary social style is what makes us unique and sets us apart from others in that style

40. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 40 When in doubt about our primary or secondary styles, we need only ask our family members and closest friends. They will tell us.

41. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 41 Exercise (groups of 3) Take a few minutes to complete Parts I and II of the blue sheet by yourself Go sit with two other people whom you know Complete Part III by talking to your two colleagues

42. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 42 Distribution of styles in this room

43. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 43 The Friction Factor There are two main reasons why people become irritated with each other’s behavior, and both relate to social styles The first is Pace people think and move at different paces The second is Priorities some people regard tasks more important than relationships and vice versa

44. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 44 Pace and Priority Problems Pace is the biggest source of friction and conflict between Askers (Analyticals and Amiables) and tellers (Drivers and Expressives) Askers are slower paced and tellers are faster paced The issue of priorities is the biggest point of contention between task-oriented styles (Analyticals and Drivers) and relationship-oriented styles (Amiables and Expressives)

45. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 45

46. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 46 A major part of learning to get along with someone is understanding his/her perspective on life

47. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 47 Pace Conflicts Askers cannot live life until they understand it discuss pertinent facts attitude reserved and questioning apply experience to problems minds inwardly directed Tellers cannot understand life until they have lived it discuss new possibilities attitude relaxed and confident apply ingenuity to problems minds outwardly directed

48. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 48 Priority Conflicts Task-oriented value logic above sentiment truthful rather than tactful like to organize question conclusions brief and businesslike tend to decide impersonally Relationship-oriented value sentiment above logic tactful rather than truthful like to conciliate accept conclusions not brief, but friendly tend to be influenced in decision

49. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 49 In closing

50. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 50 Each Style Must Reach Out It is up to the sender to adapt to meet the needs of the receiver

51. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 51 Adapting to Meet the Needs of Analyticals they don’t appreciate people who come on too strong speak softly and slowly to Analyticals they appreciate discussions about achievements talk to them about reachable goals be sure to meet their needs for facts, data, time-lines give them time to reflect on information before they decide exercise patience with Analyticals etc.

52. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 52 Adapting to Meet the Needs of Drivers Try not bore them with details get to your bottom line quickly don’t try to give them a big sales pitch they are intuitive thinkers and will trust hunches let them chose their methods or paths of response be sure to let them know what your expectations are try to increase your pace around drivers they appreciate saving time in order to get on to their many tasks etc.

53. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 53 Adapting to Meet the Needs of Amiables They most appreciate those who are gentle and not brash they do not offer opinions or make quick decisions because they do not want to hamper their relationships they need information that will explain the “why” they do not like to work alone they need much encouragement and assurance etc.

54. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 54 Adapting to Meet the Needs of Expressives They appreciate people who will listen to them and share with them have patience with their quick decisions they have a tendency to “tell it like it is” try not to take their comments personally they want to know who is going to be involved they tend to start many jobs and not complete them they tend to exaggerate and overgeneralize etc.

55. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 55 Most communication experts tell us that it is important to fine-tune our approach to the behavioral style of the person we are talking with Making a few adjustments in our own style to suit each specific situation can dramatically improve our odds for getting our message through

56. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 56 The greatest barrier to communication is assuming that it has taken place.

57. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 57 Finite May the force be with you

58. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 58 Additional Materials

59. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 59

60. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 60

61. 10/18/2011 D. Protti (communications styles.ppt) 61

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