Circulatory system
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Circulatory System. Transport systems in animals. Overview. Functions of a transport/circulatory system Cellular transport Invertebrate circulation Gastrovascular cavity Water vascular system Open circulatory system Closed circulatory system Vertebrate circulation Fishes Amphibians.

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Circulatory System

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Circulatory system

Circulatory System

Transport systems in animals


Overview

Overview

  • Functions of a transport/circulatory system

  • Cellular transport

  • Invertebrate circulation

    • Gastrovascular cavity

    • Water vascular system

    • Open circulatory system

    • Closed circulatory system

  • Vertebrate circulation

    • Fishes

    • Amphibians

  • Reptiles

  • Birds

  • Mammals


Functions of the circulatory system

Functions of the circulatory system

  • Transports materials

    • Nutrients from digested food

    • Respiratory gases: CO2 and O2

    • Waste materials: toxins and nitrogenous wastes

    • Antibodies

    • Hormones

    • Enzymes

  • Immune functions

  • Maintains homeostasis

    • Blood pH

    • Heat transport


Transport at the cellular level

Transport at the cellular level

  • Cell membrane

    • Passive transport (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis)

      • high concentration of solutes to low concentration of solutes

      • no need to expend energy

    • Active transport

      • spending energy

      • moving materials from low concentration to high concentration of solutes

    • Transport of large molecules

      • endocytosis vesicles  exocytosis

  • Cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming)

    • occurs in eukaryotes, e.g. Paramecium

    • facilitated by microfilaments

    • requires energy


Transport at the cellular level con t

Transport at the cellular level (con’t)

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

    • manufacturing and transport facility

    • proteins produced in rough ER are packaged in vesicles

  • Golgi apparatus

    • modification and storage facility

    • receiving end and shipping end

  • Vacuole

    • large membrane bound sacs

    • usually stores undigested nutrients


How are materials transported in multicellular organisms

How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Gastrovascular cavity in simple invertebrates

  • No system is required

  • Single opening: exchange of materials with the environment

  • Central cavity for digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body

  • Body walls are two cell layers thick  materials undergo diffusion

  • Cnidarians (e.g. Hydra) and flatworms (e.g. planarians)


How are materials transported in multicellular organisms1

How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Water vascular system in echinoderms

  • multi-purpose: locomotion, food and waste transport, respiration

  • closed system of canals connecting tube feet

  • madreporite  ring canal  radial and lateral canal  tube feet  ampullae


How are materials transported in multicellular organisms2

How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Open circulatory system

  • Phylum Arthropoda, Phylum Mollusca (with one exception)

  • hemolymph (colorless)

  • heart(s)  sinuses ostia heart(s)

  • diffusion from sinuses to organs

  • insects: well-developed respiratory systems, O2 not transported through the blood


How are materials transported in multicellular organisms3

How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Closed circulatory system or cardiovascular system

  • cephalopods, annelids, vertebrates

  • presence of blood vessels

  • advantages

    • rapid flow

    • may direct blood to specific tissues

    • blood cells and large molecules remain within vessels

    • can support higher levels of metabolic activity


General plan of the cardiovascular system

General plan of the cardiovascular system

  • Heart

    • Atrium

    • Ventricle

  • Blood vessels

    • Arteries

    • Arterioles

    • Capillaries and capillary beds

    • Venules

    • Veins

  • Blood


Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates fishes

Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates: fishes

  • Single-circulation

  • Fish heart

    • 2 chambered hearts

      • atrium and ventricle

      • vessel

  • African lungfish heart

    • 3-chambered

      • 2 atria

        • left side of atrium receives oxygenated blood (to tissues)

        • right side receives deoxygenated blood (to lung or gills)

        • spiral fold

      • partially divided ventricle


Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates amphibians

Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates: amphibians

  • Pulmocutaneous and systemic circulation are partly separated

  • Amphibian heart

    • 1 ventricle pumps blood to lungs, skin, and tissues

    • 2 atria:

      • rt. atrium receives deoxygenated blood

      • lt. atrium receives oxygenated blood

  • advantage: oxygen-rich blood reaches the body’s organs faster

  • some mixing of O2-rich and poor blood occurs


Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates reptiles

Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates: reptiles

  • Reptilian heart

    • 3-chambers (except for crocodilians with 4)

      • 2 atria

      • 1 ventricle (2 ventricles in crocodiles and alligators)

        • partially divided, decreases mixing

  • may stop sending blood to lungs when not breathing


Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates birds and mammals

Different adaptations of the cardiovascular systems in vertebrates: birds and mammals

  • 4 chambered heart:

    • 2 atria

    • 2 ventricles

  • full separation of pulmonary and systemic circuits

  • Advantages

    • no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

    • gas exchange is maximized

    • separation allows for pulmonary and systemic circuits to operate at different pressures

  • Importance

  • Endothermic  high nutrient and O2 demands in tissues

  • Numerous vessels  great deal of resistance, so requires high pressure


Blood flow in mammals

Blood flow in mammals

  • R side of heart:

    • pulmonary circuit

  • L side of heart:

    • systemic circuit

  • one way valves:

    • atrioventricular valves

    • semilunar valves


Blood flow in mammals1

Blood flow in mammals

  • right atrium receives O2-poor blood from superior and inferior venae cavae

  • from right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve

  • pumped into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary semilunar valve to lungs

  • O2-rich blood from lungs is returned to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins

  • enters the left ventricle via the mitral or bicuspid valve

  • exits the left ventricle into the aorta via the aortic semilunar valve

  • circulated to body tissues


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