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Environmental Hazards and Human Health Chapter 14 Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (1) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Mode of transmittance Exponential increase of infection worldwide Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (2) No vaccine for HIV No cure for AIDS

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Environmental hazards and human health l.jpg

Environmental Hazards and Human Health

Chapter 14


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Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (1)

  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  • Mode of transmittance

  • Exponential increase of infection worldwide


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Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (2)

  • No vaccine for HIV

  • No cure for AIDS


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Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Fig. 14-1, p. 323


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Impact of AIDS on the Age Structure of Botswana, Africa

Fig. 14-2, p. 323


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14-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

  • Concept 14-1 People face health hazards from biological, chemical, physical, and cultural factors and from the choices they make in their lifestyles.


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Risk and Hazards

  • Risk

  • Probability

  • Possibility

  • Risk assessment

  • Risk management


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Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Fig. 14-3, p. 324


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Major Types of Hazards

  • Biological

  • Chemical

  • Physical

  • Cultural

  • Lifestyle


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14-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

  • Concept 14-2 In terms of death rates, the most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, diarrhea, and malaria, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries.


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Biological Hazards (1)

  • Nontransmissible diseases

  • Transmissible (infectious) disease

    • Pathogens

  • Epidemic

  • Pandemic


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Biological Hazards (2)

  • Good news

  • Bad news


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Pathways for Infectious Diseasein Humans


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Pets

Livestock

Wild animals

Insects

Food

Water

Air

Fetus and babies

Other humans

Humans

Fig. 14-4, p. 326


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Pets

Livestock

Wild animals

Insects

Food

Water

Air

Fetus and babies

Other humans

Humans

Stepped Art

Fig. 14-4, p. 326


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World’s Seven Deadliest Infectious Diseases


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Disease

(type of agent)

Deaths per year

Pneumonia and flu

(bacteria and viruses)

3.2 million

HIV/AIDS

(virus)

3.0 million

Diarrheal diseases

(bacteria and viruses)

2.1 million

Malaria

(protozoa)

2.0 million

Tuberculosis

(bacteria)

1.6 million

Hepatitis B

(virus)

1 million

Measles

(virus)

800,000

Fig. 14-5, p. 326


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Science Focus: Growing Resistanceto Antibiotics

  • High bacterial reproductive rate

  • Genetic resistance

  • Global travel

  • Use of pesticides

  • Overuse of antibiotics


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Global Threats from Disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Viral diseases

  • Malaria


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Distribution of Malaria

Fig. 14-6, p. 329


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The Life Cycle of Malaria


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Female mosquito bites

infected human, ingesting

blood that contains

Plasmodium gametocytes

Merozoites enter

bloodstream

and develop into

gametocytes

causing malaria

and making

infected person

a new reservoir

Plasmodium

develop in

mosquito

Sporozoites

penetrate liver

and develop

into merozoites

Female mosquito injects

Plasmodium sporozoites

into human host.

Fig. 14-7, p. 329


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Female mosquito bites infected human,

ingesting blood that contains Plasmodium

gametocytes

Merozoites enter blood-stream and develop into gametocytes causing malaria and making

infected person a new reservoir

Plasmodium

develops in

mosquito

Sporozoites penetrate liver

and develop into merozoites

Female mosquito injects Plasmodium sporozoites into human host

Stepped Art

Fig. 14-7, p. 329


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Ecological Medicine

  • Zoonotic diseases

  • Ecological (conservation) medicine

  • Human actions encourage spread of disease

    • Clear-cutting and fragmentation

    • Harvesting animals

    • Global trade and travel

    • Trade in wild species


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Science Focus: A Nightmare Flu Scenario

  • Common flu

  • Potent varieties of flu virus

    • Spanish flu of 1918

  • Future pandemics

  • Animals as reservoirs for flu virus

    • H5N1 avian flu virus (bird flu)


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Preventing or Reducing the Incidence of Infectious Diseases

Fig. 14-8, p. 331


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14-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?

  • Concept 14-3 There is growing concern about chemicals that can cause cancer and disrupt the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.


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Chemical Hazards (1)

  • Toxic chemicals

  • Hazardous chemicals

  • Mutagens

  • Teratogens

  • Carcinogens


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Chemical Hazards (2)

  • Metastasis

  • Immune system

  • Neurotoxins

  • Hormonally active agents (HAA)

    • DDT, PCBs, atrazine, aluminum, mercury, bisphenol-A


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14-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

  • Concept 14-4A Any synthetic or natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large enough quantity.

  • Concept 14-4B Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful chemicals.


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Determining Chemical Safety (1)

  • Toxicology

  • Toxicity

  • Dose

  • Relevance of genetic makeup

  • Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)


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Determining Chemical Safety (2)

  • Water and fat soluble toxins

  • Persistence

  • Bioaccumulation

  • Biomagnification

  • Chemical interactions


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Type and Severity of Health Damage

  • Response – dose dependent

    • Acute

    • Chronic

  • Mechanisms which reduce harmful effects

  • Age-related effects

  • Effects of trace levels of toxic chemicals


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Estimating Human Exposure to Chemicals and Their Effect


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Water pollutant

levels

Air pollutant

levels

Soil/dust

levels

Food pesticide

levels

Nutritional

health

Overall

health

Lifestyle

Predicted level of

toxicant in people

Personal

habits

Genetic

predisposition

Metabolism

Accumulation

Excretion

Lung, intestine, and

skin absorption rates

Fig. 14-9, p. 335


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Potentially Harmful Chemicals Foundin Homes


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Teddy bear

Some stuffed animals

made oversees contain

flame retardants and/or

pesticides

Shampoo

Perfluorochemicals

to add shine

Clothing

Can contain

perfluorochemicals

Baby bottle

Can contain

bisphenol-A

Nail polish

Perfluorochemicals

and phthalates

Mattress

Flame retardants in stuffing

Perfume

Phthalates

Hairspray

Phthalates

Carpet

Padding and carpet fibers

contain flame retardants,

perfluorochemicals, and

pesticides

Food

Some food contains

bisphenol-A

TV

Wiring and plastic casing

contain flame retardants

Milk

Fat contains dioxins

and flame retardants

Sofa

Foam padding contains

flame retardants and

perfluorochemicals

Frying pan

Nonstick coating contains

perfluorochemicals

Fruit

Imported fruit may

contain pesticides

banned in the U.S.

Toys

Vinyl toys

contain

phthalates

Water bottle

Can contain

bisphenol-A

Tennis shoes

Can contain

phthalates

Tile floor

Nonstick coating contains

perfluorochemicals,

phthalates, and pesticides

Computer

Flame retardant

coatings of plastic

casing and wiring

Fig. 14-10, p. 336


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Protection against Harmful Chemicals

  • Pollution protection

  • Precautionary principle

  • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    • The dirty dozen

  • Can we have a risk-free society?


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14-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

  • Concept 14-5 We can reduce the major risks we face by becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices.


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Evaluating Risks (1)

  • Risk analysis (risk assessment)

  • Comparative risk analysis

  • Risk management

  • Risk communication


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Evaluating Risks (2)

  • Poverty – the greatest risk

  • Risks from lifestyles


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Number of Deaths Per Year in the World


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Cause of death

Annual deaths

Poverty/

malnutrition/

disease cycle

11 million (150)

Tobacco

5.4 million (74)

Pneumonia and flu

3.2 million (44)

Air pollution

3 million (41)

HIV/AIDS

3 million (41)

Malaria

2 million (27)

Diarrhea

1.9 million (26)

Tuberculosis

1.6 million (22)

Automobile accidents

1.2 million (16)

Work-related

injury and disease

1.1 million (15)

1 million (14)

Hepatitis B

Measles

800,000 (11)

Fig. 14-11, p. 338


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Comparison of Risks in the United States

Fig. 14-12, p. 339


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Comparative Risk Analysis

Fig. 14-13, p. 340


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Annual Deaths in the United States from Tobacco Use and Other Causes in 2004


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Cause of Death

Deaths

Tobacco use

442,000

101,500 (43,450 auto)

Accidents

Alcohol use

85,000

Infectious

diseases

75,000 (16,000 from AIDS)

Pollutants/toxins

55,000

30,600

Suicides

Homicides

20,622

17,000

Illegal drug use

Fig. 14-14, p. 340


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Estimating Risks from Technologies

  • System reliability (%) = Technological reliability + Human reliability

  • Difficulties in estimating reliability

  • Perceived risk vs. actual risk


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Improving Risk Evaluation

  • Carefully evaluate news reports

  • Compare risks

  • Concentrate on most serious risks


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Animation: HIV Replication

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Animation: Life Cycle of Plasmodium

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ANIMATION


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Animation: Formation of Photochemical Smog

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Animation: Thermal Invasion and Smog

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Animation: Positron-Emission Tomography

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Video: To See Again

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: New Nerves

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Fat Man Walking

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Second-Chance Heart

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Regenerative Human Organs

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: The Problem with Pork

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Polio Scare

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: AIDS Conference in Brazil

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Bird Flu

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Beach Pollution

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Food Allergy Increase

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: World AIDS Day

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Clean Air Act

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: MTBE Pollution

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: U.S. Earth Summit

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Frogs Galore

PLAY

VIDEO


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