BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA IN SPAIN. Defining Individual Bilingualism. What is bilingualism? Definitions: Weinreich (1968) “The practise of alternately using two languages will be called bilingualism, and the person involved, bilingual.” Diebold (1964) “Incipient bilingualism”
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BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA IN SPAIN
1.A 2yo who is beginning to talk, speaking English to one parent and Welsh to the other.
2.A Danish immigrant in New Zealand who has not had contact with Danish for the last 40 years.
3.A schoolchild from an Italian immigrant family in the USA who increasingly uses English both at home and outside but whose older relatives address him in Italian only.
4.A young graduate who has been studying French for eleven years.
5.A personal interpreter of an important public figure.
6.The Turkish wife of a Turkish immigrant in Germany who can converse orally in German but cannot read or write it.
7.A Japanese airline pilot who uses English for most of his professional communication.
8.A fervent Catalanist who uses Catalan at home and work, but is exposed to Spanish in the media etc and is fully conversant in both.
Diglossia & Charles Ferguson
Charles A. Ferguson (Word, 1959) – created English word ‘diglossia’ from French ‘diglossie’ (no English word before this to separate diglossia from standard bilingualism)
Diglossia – basic definition:
Use of two languages/varieties of a language in one speech community but in different situations.
Before standardisation at least, H has dictionaries, vocabulary guides and a set grammar; L has no unified grammar and may have lots of varieties within it
Stability of Diglossia:
‘a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any sector of the community for ordinary conversation’
Charles A. Ferguson
Other Theorists’ views / Types of Diglossia
Ferguson’s ideas mainly still stand some outdated and have been expanded
(Ferguson would argue this is ‘societal bilingualism’ and not diglossia)
BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA:
DIGLOSSIA WITHOUT BILINGUALISM:
BILINGUALISM WITHOUT DIGLOSSIA:
NEITHER BILINGUALISM NOR DIGLOSSIA:
Examples of bilingualism and diglossia in the Basque Country
…mean that the diglossic situation has changed.
‘The situation in the BAC could be best described as fragmentary bilingualism with residual diglossia in the Basque speaking districts of the BAC.’
In the BAC, there are three different models of bilingual education.
Evolution of the three linguistic models at pre-university level
Keeping it in the family
‘…the linguistic behaviour of Basque speakers has changed: they now use their own language in more diverse social contexts than ever before. This, together with the language promotion efforts made by many different institutions, has contributed to an improvement in the perceived social status of Basque.’