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1. BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA IN SPAIN
2. Defining Individual Bilingualism What is bilingualism?
Weinreich (1968) “The practise of alternately using two languages will be called bilingualism, and the person involved, bilingual.”
Diebold (1964) “Incipient bilingualism”
Bloomfield (1933) “In the cases where this perfect foreign-language learning is not accompanied by loss of the native language, it results in ‘bilingualism’, native like control of two languages.”
Mackey (1970) “It seems obvious that if we are to study the phenomenon of bilingualism we are forced to consider it as something entirely relative…We shall therefore consider bilingualism as the alternate use of two or more languages by the same individual.”
Factors to take into account (Mackey):
Degree, function, alternation, interference.
3. Examples 1. A 2yo who is beginning to talk, speaking English to one parent and Welsh to the other.
2. A Danish immigrant in New Zealand who has not had contact with Danish for the last 40 years.
3. A schoolchild from an Italian immigrant family in the USA who increasingly uses English both at home and outside but whose older relatives address him in Italian only.
4. A young graduate who has been studying French for eleven years.
5. A personal interpreter of an important public figure.
6. The Turkish wife of a Turkish immigrant in Germany who can converse orally in German but cannot read or write it.
7. A Japanese airline pilot who uses English for most of his professional communication.
8. A fervent Catalanist who uses Catalan at home and work, but is exposed to Spanish in the media etc and is fully conversant in both.
Bilingualism as a CONTINUUM
4. Describing Individual Bilingualism AGE
Early bilingualism, late bilingualism
Natural/ascribed bilingualism, achieved/secondary bilingualism
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIGN AND MEANING
Coordinated bilingualism, subordinate bilingualism, compound bilingualism
ORDER AND CONSEQUENCE
Incipient and ascendant bilingualism, recessive bilingualism
Maximalist/minimalist views, semilingualism
Consciousness of Bilingualism
5. Societal Multilingualism Historical Factors:
Military conquest, occupation, annexation
Political marriages and succession arrangements
Migrations and immigration
6. Societal Bilingualism Cont. Horizontal Bilingualism
7. Diglossia & Charles Ferguson Diglossia – basic definition:
Use of two languages/varieties of a language in one speech community but in different situations.
L taught at home – mother tongue
H is taught in formal education – superposed
? children can speak L better than H and write H better than L!
Before standardisation at least, H has dictionaries, vocabulary guides and a set grammar; L has no unified grammar and may have lots of varieties within it
Grammar & vocabulary range of H, even after standardisation = more complex
Stability of Diglossia:
With illiteracy in society, diglossia can live for centuries / forever
Widespread literacy can lead to unification of the 2 languages ? problem - which one to choose as base?
‘a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any sector of the community for ordinary conversation’
Charles A. Ferguson
10. Ferguson’s ideas mainly still stand some outdated and have been expanded
biglossia – diglossia involving two completely separate languages
digraphia – H is for written use, L is for conversational use
interlingual diglossia - 2 different languages
intralingual diglossia - both derived from same language
diglossia as a ‘continuum’ – ranging from rigid diglossia (clearly defined codes/situations for use) to fluid diglossia (lots of overlapping of use)
Double-nested diglossia – two Hs, one L (‘lower’ H acts as H and L)
Polyglossia – more than 2 languages
(Code-switching – 2 languages used in one situation/sentence)
11. Language Choice and Domains (Ferguson would argue this is ‘societal bilingualism’ and not diglossia)
GROUP – age, religion, sex…
SITUATION – formality-informality, status equality-inequality…
ROLE RELATIONS – e.g. mother-daughter (both as speaker & listener)
TOPIC – can overrule the 3 factors above
e.g. family, playground and street, school, church, military (Schmidt-Rohr)
can occur with socio-political changes over time
12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BILINGUALISM & DIGLOSSIA(Joshua Fishman) BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA:
occurs when definite roles (of prestige) are established in a society
everyone understands both (generally)
DIGLOSSIA WITHOUT BILINGUALISM:
in past or in less developed countries with great social divide
each group doesn’t fully understand the other but have no need to
BILINGUALISM WITHOUT DIGLOSSIA:
in societies with social unrest or change (e.g. immigrant influx in Western society during industrialization era)
taught native language for work – this used at home and their native language bought to work
? ‘pidgin’ versions of both languages; inevitable language shift
NEITHER BILINGUALISM NOR DIGLOSSIA:
in small, isolated communities (but rare) with no social hierarchy or immigration
still words people don’t recognize (e.g. words used by young people to old people)
13. Galician History 12th – 14th century ‘Golden Years’, present in all formal domains
16th – 18th century ‘ Dark Ages’, entirely absent from formal domains
19th century Renaissance, won back some areas of formal use
1983 Statute of Autonomy and Law of Linguistic Normalisation, officially present alongside Spanish in all formal domains
15. Galician Speakers Highly proficient
Galician the language of preference
Only in oral communication
Written communication improving through education
Old, lower classes, rural, less educated
Less social success
17. Galician Usage Code change
Informal/unofficial social contexts
Classic diglossic situation
18. Education, Church, Media Education
Increased Galician language proficiency
Degalicianise Galician speakers
Though important for status and survival
Prestige and influence
Mass predominantly taken in Spanish
Reflect and condition sociolinguistic behaviour
State-owned TV/radio Spanish
Local TV/radio Galician
Daily press Spanish
20. Conclusion Classic example Diglossia
Legal provisions ? ? proficiency and positive attitude
Galician still seen as the low language (L) and Spanish the high language (H)
21. Examples of bilingualism and diglossia in the Basque Country
23. repression under the regime
…mean that the diglossic situation has changed.
26. In the BAC, there are three different models of bilingual education.
the language of instruction is Castilian
Basque is taught as a second language for 3 to 5 hours a week.
Basque and Castilian are both used as languages of instruction
Basque is used as the language of instruction
Castilian is taught as a subject.
29. ‘…the linguistic behaviour of Basque speakers has changed: they now use their own language in more diverse social contexts than ever before. This, together with the language promotion efforts made by many different institutions, has contributed to an improvement in the perceived social status of Basque.’
30. Catalonia Population: 6,343,110
GDP :196,546€million (18.7% of total Spanish GDP)
Officially Bilingual –
Catalan is the official language of Catalonia, together with Castilian, the official language of the Spanish State. All persons have the right to use the two official languages and citizens of Catalonia have the right and the duty to know them.
31. How Many People Understand Catalan? If we focus in detail on the region of cataluna we can clearly see that the level of understanding is far superior to the other regions where it is spoken with nearly half the population claiming to understand, speak read and write it. In real terms this equates to around (It is also important to bear in mind that this data is taken from the 2001 Spanish census and therefore does not include the French part of Catalonia.) Rather than focusing on the people that understand Catalan its important to look at the percentage who don’t. With only 6.4% answering that the don’t understand it is quite clear that the majority of people are to some extent bilingual. If we focus in detail on the region of cataluna we can clearly see that the level of understanding is far superior to the other regions where it is spoken with nearly half the population claiming to understand, speak read and write it. In real terms this equates to around (It is also important to bear in mind that this data is taken from the 2001 Spanish census and therefore does not include the French part of Catalonia.) Rather than focusing on the people that understand Catalan its important to look at the percentage who don’t. With only 6.4% answering that the don’t understand it is quite clear that the majority of people are to some extent bilingual.
32. Diglossia in Catalonia Historically
Current situation : “the diglossic situation that was, in the past, attributed to Catalonia, has ceased to exist”
Biglossia as opposed to Diglossia
33. Catalan or not Catalan? – That is the Question! In-group/ intergroup interaction
It is proper to Speak Catalan only to those who are know to be Catalan
34. Fa cara de català? So here I have some photos – some of famous people some of not famous people – and what I want you to work out is who looks catalan.
(30 secs pause) It’s not as easy as it looks is it! So these pepole are catalan (next slide) and the others weren’t. (back a slide)So here I have some photos – some of famous people some of not famous people – and what I want you to work out is who looks catalan.
(30 secs pause) It’s not as easy as it looks is it! So these pepole are catalan (next slide) and the others weren’t. (back a slide)
35. Bilingualism in catalonia Involuntary Bilingualism
Prefer to use their own language but can speak Castilian
Achieved / Secondary Bilingualism
36. Conclusions Catalonia is a bilingual region – re-enforced by the state (language planning)
Probably more appropriate to talk about biglossia or interlingual diglossia
Natural, achieved/secondary, passive and involuntary bilingualism.
Catalan is a language of prestige and is promoted as such by the Catalan people.
Standardised form of Catalan – Some slight regional variation but there is a standard form which also prevents diglossia.
38. Bilingualism Individual
There is no single definition but instead a scale of different interpretations of what constitutes bilingualism
39. Diglossia Two languages co existing within a society with completely separate functions
Different statuses for the two languages
40. Spanish Examples Only truly a state of diglossia in Galicia
Less distinction between Castilian and the minority language in Catalonia and the Basque Country
Galicia – the language with the least prestige. Perhaps why it is in the most danger?
41. Bibliography Hoffman, C. (1991) An Introduction to Bilingualism (Longman : New York)
Romaine, S. (1995) Bilingualism Second Edition (Blackwell Publishing : Oxford)
Wei, L. (2000) The Bilingualism Reader (Routledge : London)
Hudson, A. (2002) Outline of a Theory of Diglossia in International Journal of the Sociology of Language – www.international .ucla.edu
Pradilla, M. (2001) The Catalan-speaking Communities in Mulitilinguaism in Spain ed. Turell, M (Multilingual Matters: Clevedon)
Woolard, K. (1989) Double Talk: Bilingualism and the Politics of Ethnicity in Catalonia (Stanford University Press : Stanford)
Beswick, J (2007) Regional Nationalism In Spain: Language Use and Ethnic Identity in Galicia (Multilingual Matters : Clevedon)
2001 Spanish Census www.ine.es
Lasangabaster, D. and Huguet, A. (2007) Multilingualism in European Bilingual Contexts – Language Use and Attitudes (Multilingual Matters : Clevedon)
Wright, S. (1996) Monolingualism and Bilingualism – Lessons from Canada and Spain (Multilingual Matters : Clevedon)
Etxebarria, M El Bilinguismo En El Estado Español (Bilbao)
Skutnabb-Kangas, T (1981) Bilingualism or not: The Education of Minorities (Multilingual Matters: Clevedon)