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It is a type of utterance by one speaker which requires a particular type of utterance by another speaker. Simply speaking, adjacency pairs are the utterance in a dialogue which occurs in pairs. For example,
A: What is your name?
B: My name is John.
1- Greetings: e.g.
A: How are you?
2- Question-Answer: e.g.
A: What is your job?
B: I am a teacher.
A: Would you like a cup of tea?
B: yes, please. Or
B: No, thank you.
4- Leave-taking: e.g.
Adjacency pairs always consist of two parts. They are produced by different speakers. The utterance of the first part creates the expression of the second part of the same pairs, e.g.
A: Could you help me?
In Adjacency Pairs, the first part may not receive their second part immediately. Sometimes, there is a delay. e.g.
Agent: Do you want the early flight?
Client: What time does it arrives?
In this case, the pattern will be of the form of (Q second part immediately. Sometimes, there is a delay. e.g.1-Q2-A2-A1) with the middle pair (Q2-A2) which is called Insertion Sequence.