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10

----

Charney -Drazin

Eliassen-PalmCharney -Drazin

(1)

(2)

8 exp(ikx+ily-it)

(1)sinly , cosly(2) vT

(3)

(4)

RossbyEliassen Palm

(5)


10

(6)

(4)(6)(7)

(8)

h

(8)(9)

heat flux convergence

(7)

heat flux (1)Charney-Drazin


10

Andrews McIntyre(1976)transformed

EP-

EP-

EP flux (Eliassen-Palm flux)

psudo-


10

EP-

Eliassen-Palm

planetary wave Eliassen-Palm flux Sato(1980, J. M. S. J. )


10


10

hPastratospheric sudden warming major stratospheric warming minormajor warming

majorAndrews et al.(1987)

1978 1979


Andrews et al 1987

Andrews et al.(1987)

minormajor warming


Andrews et al 19871

20N

Andrews et al.(1987)

40N

Planetary wave dashed curvemajor warming pole

180

0

a : 217

b : 219


C 2 21

c : 221

180

0

e : 31

d : 226

240

f : 35


10

Matsuno (1971)Planetary wave Planetary wave BlochingfactortransientCharney-Drazin

Zonal mean equation:QBO

couple


10

t

A

t=0


10

60N

->

1


10

10

t=0forcing

km


Charney drazin

Charney-Drazin


Ep major warming eliassen palm

EP-major warmingEliassen-Palm

*Eliassen-Palm flux EP-flux


Warming lagrange

warmingLagrangian mean*EP flux

Andrews and McIntyre(1978)

warmingLagrange

Lagrange

Lagrange

Matsuno and Nakamura, 1979, J. Atmos. Sci.)Taylor


10

Euler-Stokes Drift

<-

Lagrange * residual circulation

ULagrangeCritical Level

U=0)


10


Lagrangian mean matsuno and nakamura 1979

Lagrangian-meanMatsuno and Nakamura, 1979

Eliassen-Palm

AEDragBAB - (-


1998 2003 9 25

1998-2003 925

1998

2000

2001

2003

2002


2002 9 19 29

10hPa30kmm200m

2002919-29

919

(2004)

929


10

10hPa30km

Major

k1

10hPa

k

k


10

2002

2001

k

2002

k

2002

k

2001


2002 2001 ep flux

1

20022001EP flux

k

k

k

2002k=1, 2, 3


10

9

9921

k=2EP-flux

9EP-flux

( k=4-6 )EP-flux


Arctic oscillation

AO

Arctic Oscillation

weak, warm vortexmajorearly final

Baldwin and Dunkerton, 1999


Gcm ao ep flux kornich et al grl 2003

GCMAO

GCMAOEP-flux ( Kornich et al., GRL, 2003 )

300hPa10hPaAO

anomalyEP-flux anomaly


Polar night jet ao kuroda and kodera 2004 jgr

Polar-night Jet AO ( Kuroda and Kodera, 2004, JGR )

Sea level PressureAO

EP-flux Div


Ao eichelberger and holton 2002 jgr

EP-flux t =590 t =650t=605t = 635

AO (Eichelberger and Holton, 2002, JGR

15m/s

5m/s

AO sinly 1sin2ly 2

10m/s


Qbo holton and tan 1980

GCMNiwano and Takahashi, 1998

(QBO) Holton and Tan, 1980

QBO50hPa

QBO

QBO

EP-fluxanomaly


Local plumb 1986

Potential Vorticity

Local (Plumb, 1986)

Trap modeActivityflux


Randel and held 1991

Randel and Held (1991)

ECMWF EP-Flux

vT

700mbvT


10

uv

300mb

200mb

300mb

500mb


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