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Charney -Drazin

Eliassen-PalmCharney -Drazin

(1)

(2)

8 exp(ikx+ily-it)

(1)sinly , cosly(2) vT

(3)

(4)

RossbyEliassen Palm

(5)


(6)

(4)(6)(7)

(8)

h

(8)(9)

heat flux convergence

(7)

heat flux (1)Charney-Drazin


Andrews McIntyre(1976)transformed

EP-

EP-

EP flux (Eliassen-Palm flux)

psudo-


EP-

Eliassen-Palm

planetary wave Eliassen-Palm flux Sato(1980, J. M. S. J. )



hPastratospheric sudden warming major stratospheric warming minormajor warming

majorAndrews et al.(1987)

1978 1979


Andrews et al.(1987)

minormajor warming


20N

Andrews et al.(1987)

40N

Planetary wave dashed curvemajor warming pole

180

0

a : 217

b : 219


c : 221

180

0

e : 31

d : 226

240

f : 35


Matsuno (1971)Planetary wave Planetary wave BlochingfactortransientCharney-Drazin

Zonal mean equation:QBO

couple


t

A

t=0


60N

->

1


10

t=0forcing

km


Charney-Drazin


EP-major warmingEliassen-Palm

*Eliassen-Palm flux EP-flux


warmingLagrangian mean*EP flux

Andrews and McIntyre(1978)

warmingLagrange

Lagrange

Lagrange

Matsuno and Nakamura, 1979, J. Atmos. Sci.)Taylor


Euler-Stokes Drift

<-

Lagrange * residual circulation

ULagrangeCritical Level

U=0)



Lagrangian-meanMatsuno and Nakamura, 1979

Eliassen-Palm

AEDragBAB - (-


1998-2003 925

1998

2000

2001

2003

2002


10hPa30kmm200m

2002919-29

919

(2004)

929


10hPa30km

Major

k1

10hPa

k

k


2002

2001

k

2002

k

2002

k

2001


1

20022001EP flux

k

k

k

2002k=1, 2, 3


9

9921

k=2EP-flux

9EP-flux

( k=4-6 )EP-flux


AO

Arctic Oscillation

weak, warm vortexmajorearly final

Baldwin and Dunkerton, 1999


GCMAO

GCMAOEP-flux ( Kornich et al., GRL, 2003 )

300hPa10hPaAO

anomalyEP-flux anomaly


Polar-night Jet AO ( Kuroda and Kodera, 2004, JGR )

Sea level PressureAO

EP-flux Div


EP-flux t =590 t =650t=605t = 635

AO (Eichelberger and Holton, 2002, JGR

15m/s

5m/s

AO sinly 1sin2ly 2

10m/s


GCMNiwano and Takahashi, 1998

(QBO) Holton and Tan, 1980

QBO50hPa

QBO

QBO

EP-fluxanomaly


Potential Vorticity

Local (Plumb, 1986)

Trap modeActivityflux


Randel and Held (1991)

ECMWF EP-Flux

vT

700mbvT


uv

300mb

200mb

300mb

500mb


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