Rhetorical mode 1 narrative
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Rhetorical Mode #1 - Narrative. Professor Cathy Davis. Purpose and Audience.

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Rhetorical Mode #1 - Narrative

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Rhetorical mode 1 narrative

Rhetorical Mode #1 - Narrative

Professor Cathy Davis

Purpose and audience

Purpose and Audience

  • Personal narratives allow you to share your life with others and vicariously experience the things that happen around you. Your job as a writer is to put the reader in the midst of the action letting him or her live through an experience. A good story creates a dramatic effect, makes us laugh, gives us pleasurable fright, and/or gets us on the edge of our seats. A story has done its job if we can say, "Yes, that captures what living with my father feels like," or "Yes, that’s what being cut from the football team felt like."



There are a variety of ways to structure your narrative. The three most common structures are:

  • chronological approach

  • flashback sequence

  • reflective mode

    Select one that best fits the story you are telling



  • Show, don’t tell!!

  • Let people talk

  • Point of View

  • Tense

  • Tone

Show don t tell

Show, don’t tell!!

  • Don’t tell the reader what he or she is supposed to think or feel. Let the reader see, hear, smell, feel, and taste the experience directly, and let the sensory experiences lead him or her to your intended thought or feeling. Showing is harder than telling. It’s easier to say, "It was incredibly funny," than to write something that is incredibly funny. The rule of "show, don’t tell" means that your job as a storyteller is not to interpret; it’s to select revealing details. You’re a sifter, not an explainer. An easy way to accomplish showing and not telling is to avoid the use of "to be" verbs.

Let people talk

Let People Talk

  • Work to create dialogue that allows the characters’ personalities and voices to emerge through unique word selection.

Point of view

Point of View

  • The perspective from which your story is told. It encompasses where you are in time, how much you view the experience emotionally (your tone), and how much you allow yourself into the minds of the characters. Most personal narratives are told from the first-person limited point of view.



  • Tense is determined by the structure you select for your narrative. Consider how present vs. past tense might influence your message and the overall tone of your piece.

Rhetorical mode 1 narrative


  • The tone of your narrative should create a dominant impression. Look over the subject that you are presenting and think of what you are trying to get across. How do you want your audience (in this case, me) to feel when they finish your piece? Careful word choice can help achieve the appropriate effect.

Selectednarrative essayists

SelectedNarrative Essayists

  • Ernest Hemingway

  • Anne Lamott

  • Joan Didion

Hemingway a moveable feast

Hemingway:A Moveable Feast

  • “You expected to be sad in the fall. Part of you died each year when the leaves fell from the trees and their branches were bare against the wind and the cold, wintry light. But you knew there would always be the spring, as you knew the river would flow again after it was frozen. When the cold rains kept on and killed the spring, it was as though a young person had died for no reason. “



  • “I try to write the books I would love to come upon, that are honest, concerned with real lives, human hearts, spiritual transformation, families, secrets, wonder, craziness—and that can make me laugh. When I am reading a book like this, I feel rich and profoundly relieved to be in the presence of someone who will share the truth with me, and throw the lights on a little, and I try to write these kinds of books. Books, for me, are medicine.”

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