Chapter 12
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Chapter 12. Construction Documentation. Objectives. After reading the chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able to: Identify the materials that are included in contract documentation Explain how scale drawings are made

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Construction Documentation


Objectives

Objectives

  • After reading the chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able to:

  • Identify the materials that are included in contract documentation

  • Explain how scale drawings are made

  • Explain the purpose of written specifications


Contract documents

Contract Documents

  • Contract documents include working drawings, specifications, and the contract for the job.

  • Working drawings indicate the shape, size, and location of all parts of the project.

  • Working drawings are drawn to scale. Scale drawings are usually smaller than the actual object.

  • Specifications are written details about a construction project.

  • Specifications describe the materials, methods of construction, and quality of work that is required for the project.

  • The working drawings and specifications are used to create an estimate, a calculation of the cost to build a project.

  • Bids are presented based on the estimate.

  • The working drawings and specifications become legally binding portion of the contract once the contract is signed.


Architectural drawings

Architectural Drawings

  • Architectural drawings are made to show the physical form of a building or other architectural structure.

  • Each floor will have a separate drawing for floor layout, and for electrical, HVAC, and plumbing systems, creating at least four drawings for each floor of the building.

  • Plumbers can complete their work using only the plumbing plans.

  • The word plan indicates that the drawing is top view.

  • An elevation is a view of the building seen from one side, such as front elevation.


Small projects

Small Projects

  • Architectural drawings for small projects contain a plot plan, foundation plan, floor plan, elevations, and detailed sections.

  • A plot plan is a top view drawing that shows the building site and the placement and orientation of the structures inside the property lines.

  • Property lines indicate the boundary of the property.

  • A landscape plan shows the finished contour of the land and the type and placement of trees, shrubs, flowers, and water features.

  • A foundation plan shows the size and shape of building supports. Foundations are composed of footings, walls, piers, and columns. Footings are the base on which foundations are built.

  • Section views show a cross section of an object, giving more detail.

  • The floor plan depicts the room layout of each floor. It includes walls, doors, and windows. It may also include electrical, plumbing, and HVAC.

  • Elevation drawings show the outside of the structure as it would appear if you were looking straight at the building.

  • Detailed drawings show how the component parts fit together. Decorative elements are often shown in detail drawings.


Large projects

Large Projects

  • In addition to plot, floor, and landscape plans, large projects need:

  • Structural plan - describes how the building is to be framed.

  • Electrical plan – shows the location and type of lighting, electrical outlets, switches, circuit breakers, and other elements of the electrical system.

  • Climate control plan – shows the location of HVAC equipment, ducts, and controls.

  • Plumbing plan – shows the location of plumbing fixtures, piping for hot and cold water, drains, vents, and other components of the plumbing system.

  • Mechanical equipment drawing – shows the location of elevators, escalators, and other mechanical equipment.

  • Finish details – illustrates cabinetry, interior and exterior trim, stairs and other items that are visible in the finished building.


Engineering drawings

Engineering Drawings

  • Engineering drawings are used to graphically communicate the size, shape, and location information needed to build utilities, roads, pipelines, and other projects.

  • A complete set of engineering drawings include site, structural, electrical, and mechanical drawings.

  • Site drawings describe the site before construction begins and includes existing trees, buildings, fences, and other objects on the property. The site drawing also addresses the contour of the land and how it may need to be modified for best use.

  • Structural drawings describe the support system to be built for a structure.

  • Electrical drawings show all electrical devices included in the project. These drawings indicate how wiring is to be installed to distribute electrical power to each of the devices.

  • Mechanical drawings describe any mechanical devices that are part of a structure.


Shop drawings

Shop Drawings

  • Shop drawings are drawings prepared by a sub contractor to provide details needed to make some components off site for a project.

  • Structural steel work often requires shop drawings.


Specifications

Specifications

  • Specifications describe the building material to be used, the equipment to be installed, methods to be used, and the quality of work that is required for a construction project.

  • Specifications are precisely and carefully written to coordinate with the drawings.

  • Without information provided by the specifications, it would not be possible to prepare an accurate estimate or bid.

  • Once a contract is signed for the project, the specifications become a part of the legal contract.


Summary

Summary

  • Contract documents include working drawings, specifications, and the contract for the job.

  • Working drawings indicate the shape, size, and location of all parts of the project.

  • Specifications are written details about a construction project.

  • The working drawings and specifications are used to create an estimate, a calculation of the cost to build a project.

  • Architectural drawings are made to show the physical form of a building or other architectural structure.

  • Each floor will have a separate drawing for floor layout, and for electrical, HVAC, and plumbing systems, creating at least four drawings for each floor of the building.

  • Architectural drawings for small projects contain a plot plan, foundation plan, floor plan, elevations, and detailed sections.

  • A plot plan is a top view drawing that shows the building site and the placement and orientation of the structures inside the property lines.

  • A foundation plan shows the size and shape of building supports. Foundations are composed of footings, walls, piers, and columns. Footings are the base on which foundations are built.

  • The floor plan depicts the room layout of each floor. It includes walls, doors, and windows. It may also include electrical, plumbing, and HVAC.

  • Elevation drawings show the outside of the structure as it would appear if you were looking straight at the building.

  • Detailed drawings show how the component parts fit together. Decorative elements are often shown in detail drawings.

  • Engineering drawings are used to graphically communicate the size, shape, and location information needed to build utilities, roads, pipelines, and other projects.

  • Site drawings describe the site before construction begins and includes existing trees, buildings, fences, and other objects on the property.

  • Shop drawings are drawings prepared by a sub contractor to provide details needed to make some components off site for a project.

  • Specifications describe the building material to be used, the equipment to be installed, methods to be used, and the quality of work that is required for a construction project. Specifications are precisely and carefully written to coordinate with the drawings.


Home work

Home Work

  • 1. What is included in contract drawings?

  • 2. What are the four drawings required for each floor of the building?


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