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Chapter 2: Earth Materials. Elements and Compounds. Element Most fundamental substance into which matter can be separated by chemical means Atom Smallest single particle that keeps element’s distinct chemical properties Protons (+) Neutrons (neutral) Electrons (-) Net atom charge

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elements and compounds
Elements and Compounds

Element

Most fundamental substance into which matter can be separated by chemical means

Atom

Smallest single particle that keeps element’s distinct chemical properties

Protons (+)

Neutrons (neutral)

Electrons (-)

Net atom charge

Protons (+) +electrons (-)

elements and compounds1
Elements and Compounds

Atomic number

# of protons

Atomic mass

# of protons + # of neutrons

Isotopes

Atoms with same atomic # but different mass #

elements compounds
Elements & Compounds
  • Electron (-)
    • Electron “shells”
    • Ion
      • Cation (+)
      • Anion (-)
compounds molecules and bonding
Compounds, molecules and bonding

Compound

Combo of atoms from1 or more elements in specific ratio

Molecule

Smallest unit with all properties of a specific compound

Bond

Force that holds together atoms in molecules &/or compounds

compounds molecules bonding
Compounds, molecules & bonding

Ionic Bonding

1 atom transfers electron to another

Gain or lose electrons

I.e. = Table salt (sodium chloride or NaCl)

compounds molecules and bonding1
Compounds, molecules and bonding

Covalent Bond

Electrons from different atoms “pair up” & create bond

Share electrons

Strongest of chemical bonds

compounds molecules and bonding2
Compounds, molecules and bonding

Metallic Bond

Electrons shared among several atoms

Outer electrons drift between atoms

Good conductors of heat & electricity

compounds molecules and bonding3
Compounds, molecules and bonding

Van der Waals Bond

Attraction between electrically neutral molecules with asymmetrical charge

Dipolar molecules

Weak bonds

I.e. Water

what is a mineral
What Is a Mineral?

Mineral

Naturally formed

Solid

Inorganic

Specific crystal structure

Specific chemical composition

composition of minerals
Composition of minerals

Atomic substitution

Elements with similar size & charge can substitute for each other

Crystal structure

Atoms/molecules arranged into regular patterns

Mineraloid

Polymorphs

Same chemical composition but different crystal structure

telling minerals apart
Telling minerals apart

Luster

Quality & intensity of light reflection

Metallic

Non-metallic

Vitreous

Resinous

Pearly

telling minerals apart1
Telling minerals apart

Crystal form

Any flat or planar surface that forms during mineral growth

Habit

Particular mineral’s distinctive shape

telling minerals apart2
Telling minerals apart

Hardness

Mineral’s resistance to scratching

Mohs scale (1-10)

Image

Mineral

Hardness

Common Objects Reference

Talc

1

2

Gypsum

Fingernail (2.5)

Calcite

3

Copper Penny (3.5)

4

Fluorite

Wire Nail (4.5)

Apatite

5

Glass (5.5)

Feldspar

6

Streak Plate (6.5)

Quartz

7

Topaz

8

Corundum

9

Diamond

10

telling minerals apart3
Telling minerals apart

Cleavage

Mineral breaks in a regular pattern

Relates to crystal structure within mineral

telling minerals apart4
Telling minerals apart

Color

Least reliable

Light absorbed by mineral

Streak

Powdered trace of mineral made by rubbing specimen across unglazed porcelain piece

telling minerals apart5
Telling minerals apart

Density

Mass / volume

Compactness of atoms

Other mineral properties

Birefringent

Double images

Effervescence

Fizzes in acid

Magnetic

Attracted to magnet

Luminescence or fluorescence

UV “glow”

mineral families their uses
Mineral families & their uses

Minerals of Earth’s crust

Silicate minerals

Minerals contain both silicon & oxygen

Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

1 Si atom bonded to 4 O atoms

mineral families resources
Mineral families & resources

Other minerals of Earth’s crust

Oxides

Carbonates

Ore deposits

Localized concentration that can be extracted profitably

rocks a first look
Rocks: A First Look

Rock

Naturally formed aggregate of minerals & possibly other non-mineral matter

Record history of Earth processes

Feldspar

Biotite

Quartz

Granite

rocks a first look1
Rocks: A First Look

Igneous

Form by cooling & solidification of molten rock

Magma

Sedimentary

Form under conditions of low pressure & low temperature near the surface

Metamorphic

Altered by exposure to high temperature, high pressure or both

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