Chapter 2 earth materials
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Chapter 2: Earth Materials. Elements and Compounds. Element Most fundamental substance into which matter can be separated by chemical means Atom Smallest single particle that keeps element’s distinct chemical properties Protons (+) Neutrons (neutral) Electrons (-) Net atom charge

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Chapter 2: Earth Materials

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Chapter 2 earth materials

Chapter 2: Earth Materials


Elements and compounds

Elements and Compounds

Element

Most fundamental substance into which matter can be separated by chemical means

Atom

Smallest single particle that keeps element’s distinct chemical properties

Protons (+)

Neutrons (neutral)

Electrons (-)

Net atom charge

Protons (+) +electrons (-)


Elements and compounds1

Elements and Compounds

Atomic number

# of protons

Atomic mass

# of protons + # of neutrons

Isotopes

Atoms with same atomic # but different mass #


Elements compounds

Elements & Compounds

  • Electron (-)

    • Electron “shells”

    • Ion

      • Cation (+)

      • Anion (-)


Compounds molecules and bonding

Compounds, molecules and bonding

Compound

Combo of atoms from1 or more elements in specific ratio

Molecule

Smallest unit with all properties of a specific compound

Bond

Force that holds together atoms in molecules &/or compounds


Compounds molecules bonding

Compounds, molecules & bonding

Ionic Bonding

1 atom transfers electron to another

Gain or lose electrons

I.e. = Table salt (sodium chloride or NaCl)


Compounds molecules and bonding1

Compounds, molecules and bonding

Covalent Bond

Electrons from different atoms “pair up” & create bond

Share electrons

Strongest of chemical bonds


Compounds molecules and bonding2

Compounds, molecules and bonding

Metallic Bond

Electrons shared among several atoms

Outer electrons drift between atoms

Good conductors of heat & electricity


Compounds molecules and bonding3

Compounds, molecules and bonding

Van der Waals Bond

Attraction between electrically neutral molecules with asymmetrical charge

Dipolar molecules

Weak bonds

I.e. Water


What is a mineral

What Is a Mineral?

Mineral

Naturally formed

Solid

Inorganic

Specific crystal structure

Specific chemical composition


Composition of minerals

Composition of minerals

Atomic substitution

Elements with similar size & charge can substitute for each other

Crystal structure

Atoms/molecules arranged into regular patterns

Mineraloid

Polymorphs

Same chemical composition but different crystal structure


Telling minerals apart

Telling minerals apart

Luster

Quality & intensity of light reflection

Metallic

Non-metallic

Vitreous

Resinous

Pearly


Telling minerals apart1

Telling minerals apart

Crystal form

Any flat or planar surface that forms during mineral growth

Habit

Particular mineral’s distinctive shape


Telling minerals apart2

Telling minerals apart

Hardness

Mineral’s resistance to scratching

Mohs scale (1-10)

Image

Mineral

Hardness

Common Objects Reference

Talc

1

2

Gypsum

Fingernail (2.5)

Calcite

3

Copper Penny (3.5)

4

Fluorite

Wire Nail (4.5)

Apatite

5

Glass (5.5)

Feldspar

6

Streak Plate (6.5)

Quartz

7

Topaz

8

Corundum

9

Diamond

10


Telling minerals apart3

Telling minerals apart

Cleavage

Mineral breaks in a regular pattern

Relates to crystal structure within mineral


Telling minerals apart4

Telling minerals apart

Color

Least reliable

Light absorbed by mineral

Streak

Powdered trace of mineral made by rubbing specimen across unglazed porcelain piece


Telling minerals apart5

Telling minerals apart

Density

Mass / volume

Compactness of atoms

Other mineral properties

Birefringent

Double images

Effervescence

Fizzes in acid

Magnetic

Attracted to magnet

Luminescence or fluorescence

UV “glow”


Mineral families their uses

Mineral families & their uses

Minerals of Earth’s crust

Silicate minerals

Minerals contain both silicon & oxygen

Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

1 Si atom bonded to 4 O atoms


Mineral families resources

Mineral families & resources

Other minerals of Earth’s crust

Oxides

Carbonates

Ore deposits

Localized concentration that can be extracted profitably


Rocks a first look

Rocks: A First Look

Rock

Naturally formed aggregate of minerals & possibly other non-mineral matter

Record history of Earth processes

Feldspar

Biotite

Quartz

Granite


Rocks a first look1

Rocks: A First Look

Igneous

Form by cooling & solidification of molten rock

Magma

Sedimentary

Form under conditions of low pressure & low temperature near the surface

Metamorphic

Altered by exposure to high temperature, high pressure or both


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