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Get ready for lab quiz 14 days until AP BIO Final -75 questions -Photo/cellular respiration -Cell communication + cell cycle (Chapters 11-13) -Ecology -Cell -Evolution -Labs -Water and Chemistry of Life -Colored book CAN be used on FINAL. Monday, May 14 th at 8am. AP Biology Exam.

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Get ready for lab quiz 14 days until AP BIO Final -75 questions -Photo/cellular respiration

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  • Get ready for lab quiz

  • 14 days until AP BIO Final

    -75 questions

    -Photo/cellular respiration

    -Cell communication + cell cycle (Chapters 11-13)

    -Ecology

    -Cell

    -Evolution

    -Labs

    -Water and Chemistry of Life

    -Colored book CAN be used on FINAL


Monday, May 14th at 8am

  • AP Biology Exam


Lab Quiz—Photo + Cellular Resp

  • In the cell respiration lab, the role of KOH was___________________

  • In the cell respiration lab, we measured_________________________

  • Oxygen is needed by living organisms to____________________

  • In the chromatography lab, the pigments were found in the spinach leaf were________

  • The reason that pigments had different Rf values is________________


Lab Quiz—Photo + Cellular Resp

  • In the cell respiration lab, the role of KOH was to make CO2 a solid; reduce the volume

  • In the cell respiration lab, we measured the O2 consumed

  • Oxygen is needed by living organisms to collect the electrons in the ETC

  • In the chromatography lab, the pigments were found in the spinach leaf were chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, xanthophyll, and carotene

  • The reason that pigments had different Rf values is that they have different properties and react differently with the chromatopraphy paper AND have high/low soluability in the solvent


Averages for Lab Report—2 LABS DUE FRI

Averages from Chromatography Lab

Chlorophyll a=0.249

Chlorophyll b=0.370

Xanthophyll=0.446

Carotene=1


OIL RIG

  • OIL=Oxidized Involves Losing electrons

  • RIG=Reducing Involves Gaining electrons


Oxidized or Reduced?

  • NAD +  NADH

  • O2 H2O (cellular respiration)

  • H2O in photosynthesis


Dispatch

  • How do you think one part of the body communicates with the other over SHORT distances? Over LONG distances?

  • What do you think the jar is representing? Open jar=2 Phosphates (ADP); Closed jar=3 Phosphates (ATP)


Cell Communication

http://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video;_ylt=A0oGdWOXyBFPwhsAQ5VXNyoA?p=dominoes%20knocking%20over&fr=yfp-t-701&fr2=piv-web


The Cellular “Internet”

  • Within multicellular organisms, cells must communicate with one another to coordinate their activities

  • A signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response

  • Signal transduction pathways are very similar in all organisms, even organisms as different as unicellular yeasts and multicellular mammals


Local (Short-Distance) Signaling

  • Cells may communicate by direct contact

    • Plasmodesmata in plant cells

    • Gap junctions in animal cells

  • Animal cells can also use cell-cell recognition

    • Membrane-bound surface molecules can interact and communicate


Local (Short-Distance) Signaling

  • Messenger molecules can also be secreted by the signaling cell

  • Paracrine signaling:

    • One cell secretes (releases) molecules that act on nearby “target” cells

    • Example: growth factors

  • Synaptic Signaling:

    • Nerve cells release chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that stimulate the target cell


  • How do you think one part of the body communicates with the other over LONG distances?


Long-Distance Signaling

  • Endocrine (hormone) signaling

    • Specialized cells release hormone molecules, which travel (usually by diffusion through cells or through the circulatory system) to target cells elsewhere in the organism


  • The body needs more of protein X.

    DNARNAProtein X

    How do we turn on transcription?


Phosphorylation

  • The protein being phosphorylated GAINS a phosphate

  • A molecule that is phosphorylated has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work.


The Three Stages of Cell Signaling

  • There are 3 stages at the “receiving end” of a cellular conversation:

    • Reception

    • Transduction

    • Response


Stage 1: Reception

  • The target cell “detects” that there is a signal molecule coming from outside the cell

    • The signal is detected when it binds to a protein on the cell’s surface or inside the cell

    • The signal molecule “searches out” specific receptor proteins

      • The signal molecule is a ligand

        • It is a molecule that specifically binds to another one (think enzymes!)


Stage 2: Transduction

  • This stage converts the signal into a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

    • One signal-activated receptor activates another protein, which activates another molecule, etc., etc.

    • These act as relay molecules

    • Often the message is transferred using protein kinases, which transfer phosphate groups from ATP molecules to proteins


Stage 2: Transduction


Stage 3: Response

  • The signal that was passed through the signal transduction pathway triggers a specific cellular response

    • Examples: enzyme action, cytoskeleton rearrangement, activation of genes, etc., etc.

    • Diagram example: transcription of mRNA


The Specificity of Cell Signaling

  • The particular proteins that a cell possesses determine which signal molecules it will respond to and how it will respond to them

  • Liver cells and heart cells, for example, do not respond in the same way to epinephrine because they have different collections of proteins


Animation

  • http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp15/15020.html

  • 1) What is flight or fight?

  • 2) What is glycogen?


Word bank: signaling molecule, cell receptor, signal transduction pathway, nuclear signaling, cascade, phosphorylation, ATP, protein, response, nucleus, mRNA, second messenger


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