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Immigration and Reform. Immigration. Immigration Waves First and Second Wave Naturalization Law and Race The Case of Puerto Rico Chinese Exclusion Acts Public opinion Labor leaders’ opinion Legislation Loopholes in Legislation Construction of Racial Difference Visually

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Immigration
Immigration

  • Immigration Waves

    • First and Second Wave

    • Naturalization Law and Race

    • The Case of Puerto Rico

  • Chinese Exclusion Acts

    • Public opinion

    • Labor leaders’ opinion

    • Legislation

    • Loopholes in Legislation

  • Construction of Racial Difference

    • Visually

    • Legally

  • Immigration Restriction

    • Literacy tests and Quotas

    • Act of 1924


Immigration waves in us history
Immigration Waves in US History

  • antebellum, 1840-1860—largely northern European, especially England, Ireland and Germany—approx. 4.5 million

  • late 1890-1920—largely Southern and Eastern European, including Polish and Russian Jews, Italian, Greek—approx. 14.5 million

  • also Asian immigrants in the late 19th-early 20th century, in much fewer numbers (for example, Chinese immigrants built US railroads)

  • Immigration Act of 1924 establishes national quotas for immigration - immigration drops sharply

  • after 1965 immigration act reform - immigrants from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia outnumber those from Europe


Immigration waves naturalization law and race in us history
Immigration Waves > Naturalization Law and Race in US History

  • 1790 - Congress limits naturalization to white persons

  • 1870 - Congress adds African Americans (naturalization limited to “free white persons” and “persons of African descent”)

  • 1952 - racial prerequisite for naturalization eliminated


Immigration waves the case of puerto rico
Immigration Waves > The Case of Puerto Rico History

  • 1898 - Puerto Rico acquired as a result of Spanish-American War

  • 1917 - US Citizenship extended to Puerto Ricans

  • 1950-1951 - Puerto Rico becomes a “Commonwealth,” has a right to establish a government with proper constitution, officially no longer a colony

  • 1953 - The largest Puerto Rican migration to the mainland US (69,124)

  • Plebiscites and referendums on the political status of Puerto Rico: 1967 (commonwealth 60%, state 39%, independence 1%) , 1993, 1998 - the commonwealth is reaffirmed each time with increasingly narrower margins

  • non-binding 1998 referendum:

    • remain a US commonwealth: 0.06%

    • “free association” between commonwealth and independence: 0.29%

    • become a state: 46.49%

    • declare independence: 2.54%

    • none of the above: 50.30%


Immigration waves the godfather part ii 1974
Immigration Waves > HistoryThe Godfather, Part II (1974)






Chinese exclusion labor leaders opinion
Chinese Exclusion > Labor leaders’ opinion ca. 1907

  • Denis Kearney, California’s Workingmen’s Party (typical)

    • Chinese laborers are “cheap working slaves” who lower white workers’ standard of living and should be banished from the U.S.

  • Joseph McDonnell, an Irish-born socialist

    • Intolerance against the Chinese repeats earlier “intolerant, silly and shameful cry” against the Irish. Workers should learn from this history and unite

  • B.E.G. Jewett, a socialist

    • Corporate employers-“oppressors, money-mongers”-are to blame

    • “What we want to fight is not the Chinese nor any other imported stock, be they Durham bulls or Spanish mules—be they men, women or babies—but we want to fight the importers, persons, who, ministering to their own greed, to the lust of the flesh and the pride of life, sell (or contract) into bondage the labor of others, and drive still others into deeper degradation and poverty. Let our pacific coast friends fight the wealth mongers, and not their slaves, and they will have not only justice but right on their side. Not say ‘the Chinese must go,’ but that ‘the oppressors, money-mongers, Sharons, et al. must go.’”


Chinese exclusion acts of 1882 1884 and 1888 and related legislation
Chinese Exclusion > Acts of 1882, 1884, and 1888 and related legislation

  • Only Chinese non-laborers and those who were born in the U.S. can enter

  • Those who resided in the U.S. prior to 1880 can remain if they don’t leave the country

  • If they leave they can come back if they have at least one thousand dollars worth of property or debts owned to them

  • The status of wife and child followed that of a husband

  • No Chinese could be naturalized as U.S. citizen


Chinese exclusion loopholes in legislation
Chinese Exclusion > Loopholes in Legislation legislation

  • Many Chinese were able to get into the U.S. by appealing to U.S. Courts even after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

  • The prohibition of judicial review of immigration decisions did not apply to the Chinese because unlike other immigrants until 1903 they did not come under purview of the Bureau of Immigration and immigration law

  • Judges often ruled in favor of Chinese plaintiffs because they adhered to Anglo- American common law traditions of habeas corpus and evidentiary rules of witness testimony (for example, did not require two white witnesses)

  • Newcomers relied on community groups and white lawyers to make their case for citizenship based on witness testimony

  • This continued until 1905 when the Bureau of Immigration took over Chinese immigration and was granted final jurisdiction in the question of citizenship


Construction of racial difference fragment
Construction of Racial Difference > Fragment legislation

What is this man’s ethnic background?







Construction of racial difference jacob riis bandit s roost 59 1 2 mulberry street c 1888
Construction of Racial Difference > Jacob Riis, “Bandit’s Roost, 59 1/2 Mulberry Street,” c. 1888


Construction of racial difference jacob riis bandit s roost how the other half lives 1890
Construction of Racial Difference > Jacob Riis, “Bandit’s Roost,” How the Other Half Lives (1890)


Construction of racial difference jacob riis mullen s alley cherry hill 1888
Construction of Racial Difference > Jacob Riis, “Mullen’s Alley, Cherry Hill,” 1888



Construction of Racial Difference > “One of Four Pedlars Who Slept in the Cellar of 11 Ludlow Street Rear,” c. 1892


Construction of racial difference supreme court decisions
Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions Who Slept in the Cellar of 11 Ludlow Street Rear,” c. 1892

In re Balsara, 1909 Asian Indians are probably not White Congressional intent

U.S. v. Dolla, 1910 Asian Indians are White Ocular inspection of skin

U.S. v. Balsara 1910 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence 

In re Sadar Bhagwab Singh, 1917Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge 

Congressional intent

In re Mohan Singh, 1919 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence 

In re Thind, 1920 Asian Indians are White Legal precedent

U.S. v. Thind, 1923 Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge 

Congressional intent

In re Najour, 1909 Syrians are White Scientific evidence

In re Mudarri, 1910 Syrians are White Scientific evidence 

Legal precedent

In re Ellis, 1910 Syrians are White Common knowledge 

Congressional intent

Ex parte Shahid, 1913 Syrians are not White Common knowledge

Ex parte Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge

In re Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge 

Congressional intent

Dow v. U.S., 1915 Syrians are White Scientific evidence 

Congressional intent 

Legal precedent


Construction of racial difference supreme court decisions1
Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions Who Slept in the Cellar of 11 Ludlow Street Rear,” c. 1892

In re Mallari, 1916 Filipinos are not White No explanation

In re Rallos, 1917 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent

U.S. v. Javier, 1927 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent

De La Ysla v. U.S., 1935 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent

De Cano v. State, 1941 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent

In re Halladjian, 1909 Armenians are Whtie Scientific evidence 

Legal precedent

U.S. v. Cartozian, 1925 Armenians are White Scientific evidence 

Common knowledge  

Legal precedent

In re Feroz Din, 1928 Afghanis are not White Common knowledge

In re Ahmed Hassan, 1942 Arabians are not White Common knowledge 

Ex parte Mohriez, 1944 Arabians are not White Legal precedent






Immigration restriction act of 1924 the johnson reed act
Immigration Restriction > Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act) Thind, 1923

  • Based ceilings on the number of immigrants from any particular nation on 2 percent of each nationality recorded in the 1890 census

  • Was directed against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe who arrived in large numbers after 1890

  • Barred all immigrants ineligible for citizenship on racial grounds, including all south and east Asians (including Indians, Japanese, and Chinese)

  • 1965 Hart-Celler Act abandones the national origins quota system


Immigration restriction annual immigration quotas 1924
Immigration Restriction > Annual Immigration Quotas, 1924 Thind, 1923

  • Germany - 51,227

  • Great Britain - 34,007

  • Ireland - 28,567

  • Italy - 3,845

  • Hungary - 473

  • Greece - 100

  • Egypt - 100


Immigration restriction map of europe literary digest 1924
Immigration Restriction > Map of Europe, Thind, 1923Literary Digest, 1924


Progressive reform
Progressive Reform Thind, 1923

  • Politics

    • Teddy Roosevelt and the rule of socially-conscious experts

    • End of “liberty of contract” doctrine

  • Art and Culture

    • Realism in art (Ashcan School)

    • Muckraking journalism

    • Documentary photography

  • Immigration and Labor

    • Settlement House movement

    • Idea of the “melting pot”

    • Fordism and Taylorism



Art and culture john sloan parade washington square 1910
Art and Culture > John Sloan, 1901-1909 Parade, Washington Square, 1910


Art and culture george bellows dempsey and firpo 1924
Art and Culture > George Bellows, 1901-1909 Dempsey and Firpo, 1924














World war i abroad and civil liberties at home
World War I Abroad lineandCivil Liberties at Home


World war i
World War I line

  • Prelude to War

    • Election of 1912

    • Woodrow Wilson

  • War in Europe

    • New type of warfare

    • U.S. reaction

  • U.S. in World War I

    • The sinking of Lusitania

    • Reasons for U.S. entry

    • U.S. soldiers in the war

  • End of War

    • The Bolshevik Revolution

    • The Versailles Treaty

    • The League of Nations


Pre war election of 1912
Pre-War > Election of 1912 line

  • Four candidates:

    • William Taft - incumbent, Republican

    • Woodrow Wilson - surprise candidate, Democrat

    • Teddy Roosevelt - progressive “Bull Moose” party, best showing ever by 3rd party

    • Eugene Debs - socialist, won 6% of the vote - the most votes won by a socialist candidate in US history

  • Stood for different approaches to US politics

    • Taft - laissez-faire Gilded Age politics

    • Wilson - progressivist, pro-small business and competition

    • Roosevelt - militant anti-trust politics

    • Debs - peaceful overthrow of capitalism









War in europe lyrics of world war i songs
War in Europe > Lyrics of World War I songs 1912

A POOR AVIATOR LAY DYING

A poor aviator lay dying.

At the end of a bright summer’s day.

His comrades had gathered about him.

To carry his fragments away.

The airplane was piled on his wishbone,

His Hotchkiss was wrapped round his head;

He wore a spark-plug on each elbow,

'Twas plain he would shortly be dead.

He spit out a valve and a gasket,

And stirred in the sump where he lay,

And then to his wondering comrades,

These brave parting words he did say:

And the butterfly valve off my neck,

Extract from my liver the crankshaft,

There are lots of good parts in this wreck.

And the cylinders out of my brain,

Take the piston rods out of my kidneys,

And assemble the engine again."

BOMBED LAST NIGHT

Oh God damnn the bombin' planes from Germany.

They’re over us, they’re over us,

One shell-hole for the four of us

Glory be to God there are no more of us

'Cause one of us could fill it all alone.

Gassed last night—gassed the night before,

Gonna get gassed again if we never git

gassed no more,

When we’re gassed, we’re as sick as we can be,

'Cause phosgene and mustard gas is too much

for me.








U s in world war i reasons for us entry into world war i
U.S. in World War I March 1917 > Reasons for US entry into World War I

  • War profits U.S. traded heavily with Britain and France but complied with a British embargo on trading with Germany

  • Anglophilia on the part of leaders like Woodrow Wilson and also among ordinary Americans (but not German or Irish immigrants)

  • Security of loans to Europe

  • The vision of a “liberal democratic world order”:

    • Wilson envisioned trade between equal national partners just as he envisioned a domestic economy made up of small businesses instead of huge trusts






U s in world war i american ambulance similar to the one ernest hemingway drove in milan in 1918
U.S. in World War I > American ambulance similar to the one Ernest Hemingway drove in Milan in 1918


U s in world war i typical questions on the iq test
U.S. in World War I > Typical Questions on the IQ test Ernest Hemingway drove in Milan in 1918

Garnets are usually

A. yellow

B. blue

C. green

D. red

Soap is made by

A. B. T. Babbitt

B. Smith & Wesson

C. W. L. Douglas

D. Swift & Co.

Laura Jean Libby is known as a

A. singer

B. suffragist

C. writer

D. army nurse

If you are lost in a forest in the daytime, what is the thing to do?

Hurry to the nearest house you know of

Look for something to eat

Use the sun or a compass for a guide


U s in world war i us army intelligence test results
U.S. in World War I > US Army Intelligence Test Results Ernest Hemingway drove in Milan in 1918


End of world war i cartoon on the bolshevik revolution of 1917
End of World War I > Cartoon on the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

Caption: “Count Parasitsky will not occupy his palatial residence in the mountains this summer. He expects to remain in the city and do uplift work.”






End of world war i cartoon on the international entanglements of the league of nations
End of World War I > Cartoon on the international entanglements of the League of Nations


World war i and civil liberties
World War I and Civil Liberties entanglements of the League of Nations

  • Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties

    • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    • The free speech cases

  • Cultural censorship

    • Anti-German sentiments

    • Jane Addams

  • 1919

    • Suffrage

    • Prohibition

    • Race riots

    • Strike wave

  • Red Scare

    • Fear of Bolshevism

    • The Palmer Raids


World war i wartime restriction of civil liberties in us history
World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History

  • 1798: Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus

  • 1917: The Espionage Act

  • 1919-1920: The Red Scare


World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917




World war i supreme court free speech cases
World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases Espionage Act in 1918

  • Charles Schenk v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917

    • distributed antiwar pamphlets

    • conviction upheld

    • Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and present danger”

  • Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the Espionage Act

    • distributed pamphlets and agitated against the war

    • conviction upheld

    • Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the constitution of the United States”

  • Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925)

    • convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902

    • called for the overthrow of U.S. government

    • the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment

    • Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.”



World war i some names changed because of the war with germany
World War I > Some names changed because of the war with Germany

  • Hamburger - “liberty stake”

  • Sauerkraut - “liberty cabbage”

  • German measles - “liberty measles”

  • dashchunds - “liberty pups”

  • Berlin, Iowa - Lincoln, Iowa

  • Kaiser Street - Maine Way





Suffrage radical suffragist alice paul in iron jawed angels 2004
Suffrage > Radical Suffragist Alice Paul in House in January 1917Iron Jawed Angels (2004)



Prohibition prohibition cartoon san francisco chronicle may 1919
Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, House in January 1917 San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919








Strike wave new york world cartoon about the railroad strike april 1919
Strike Wave > 1919New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919


Red scare philadelphia inquirer cartoon against bolshevism 1919
Red Scare > 1919Philadelphia Inquirer cartoon against Bolshevism, 1919


Red scare literary digest on the bombing of palmer s home june 1919
Red Scare > 1919Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919



Red scare chicago tribune cartoon on foreign radicals june 1919
Red Scare > 1919Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919



Red scare debs and palmer on radicalism
Red Scare > Debs and Palmer on Radicalism to radicalism, 1922

Eugene Debs, 1918:

“I believe in the Constitution. Isn’t it strange that we Socialists stand almost alone today in upholding and defending the Constitution of the United States? The revolutionary fathers … understood that free speech, a free and the right of free assemblage by the people were fundamental principles in democratic government. … I believe in the right of free speech, in war as well as peace.”

Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, 1920:

“Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, seeking to replace marriage vows with libertine laws, burning up the foundations of society. …

My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants.”


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