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Section 3. Han Emperors in China. The Han Dynasty expands China’s borders and develops a system of government that lasts for centuries. NEXT. SECTION. 3. Han Emperors in China. The Han Restore Unity to China. Troubled Empire

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Section 3

Han Emperors in China

The Han Dynasty expands China’s borders and develops a system of government that lasts for centuries.

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SECTION

3

Han Emperors in China

The Han Restore Unity to China

Troubled Empire

• In Qin Dynasty peasants resent high taxes and harsh labor, rebel

Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty

• Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds Han Dynasty

• Han Dynasty—begins in 202 B.C., lasts 400 years

• Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese people, culture

• Liu Bang establishes centralized government—a central authority rules

• Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces punishments to keep people happy

Interactive

Continued . . .

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continued The Han Restore Unity to China

The Empress Lü

• Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü seizes control of empire

• Empress Lü rules for her young son, outlives him

• Palace plots and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty

The Martial Emperor

• Liu Bang’s great-grandson Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C.

• “Martial Emperor” Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain tribes

• Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as far south as what is now Vietnam

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A Highly Structured Society

Chart

Emperor’s Role

• Chinese believe their emperor has authority to rule from god

• Believe prosperity reward of good rule; troubles reveal poor rule

Structures of Han Government

• Complex bureaucracy runs Han government

• People pay taxes and supply labor, military service

• Government uses peasant labor to carry out public projects

Continued . . .

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continued A Highly Structured Society

Confucianism, the Road to Success

• Wudi’s government employs 130,000; bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobs

• Civil service jobs—government jobs obtained through examinations

• Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of Confucianism

• Wudi favors Confucian scholars, builds school to train them

• Only sons of wealthy can afford expensive schooling

• Civil service system works well, continues until 1912

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Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture

Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life

• Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps spread education

• Collar harness, plow, wheelbarrow improve farming

Chart

Agriculture Versus Commerce

• As population grows, farming regarded as important activity

• Government allows monopolies—control by one group over key industries

• Techniques for producing silk become state secret as profits increase

Image

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The Han Unifies Chinese Culture

Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese Rule

• To unify empire, Chinese government encourages assimilation

• Assimilation—integrating conquered peoples into Chinese culture

• Writers encourage unity by recording Chinese history

Image

Women’s Roles—Wives, Nuns, and Scholars

• Most women work in the home and on the farm

• Some upper-class women are educated, run shops, practice medicine

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The Fall of the Han and Their Return

The Rich Take Advantage of the Poor

• Large landowners gain control of more and more land

• Gap between rich and poor increases

Wang Mang Overthrows the Han

• Economic problems and weak emperors cause

political instability

• In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power and stabilizes

empire

• Wang Mang is assassinated in A.D. 23; Han soon

regain control

The Later Han Years

• Peace restored, Later Han Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220

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