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2. P A R T A. Chemistry Comes Alive. Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in .

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2

P A R T A

Chemistry Comes Alive


Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in

  • Blood is collected from your patient and treated so it will not clot. This blood is placed in a long narrow tube that is placed vertically on a laboratory bench. In an hour, all the blood cells have settled to the bottom of the tube, leaving the rest of the tube filled with a clear, yellowish liquid called plasma. Why did the blood cells settle out of the blood?

  • A. blood is an acidic solution of cells and plasma that sticks to the tube

  • B. blood is a mixture of solids and gases that react with the air

  • C. blood is a solution of Na+ and CL– ions that react to form a precipitate

  • D. blood is a suspension of cells in plasma that settles by gravity


Human blood collection bellringer not to turn in
Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in

  • Blood is collected from your patient and treated so it will not clot. This blood is placed in a long narrow tube that is placed vertically on a laboratory bench. In an hour, all the blood cells have settled to the bottom of the tube, leaving the rest of the tube filled with a clear, yellowish liquid called plasma. Why did the blood cells settle out of the blood?

  • A. blood is an acidic solution of cells and plasma that sticks to the tube

  • B. blood is a mixture of solids and gases that react with the air

  • C. blood is a solution of Na+ and CL– ions that react to form a precipitate

  • D. blood is a suspension of cells in plasma that settles by gravity


Matter
Matter

  • Anything that has mass and takes up space

  • States of matter

    • Solid – has definite shape and volume

    • Liquid – has definite volume, changeable shape

    • Gas – has changeable shape and volume

      • All are important in Anatomy & Physiology


Composition of matter
Composition of Matter

  • Elements – unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means

  • Atoms –building blocks for each element


Major elements of the human body
Major Elements of the Human Body

  • Oxygen (O)

  • Carbon (C)

  • Hydrogen (H)

  • Nitrogen (N)


Lesser and trace elements of the human body
Lesser and Trace Elements of the Human Body

  • Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include: Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)

  • Trace elements make up less than 0.01% of the body


If given an element identify if it is
If given an element, identify if it is…

  • A major element of the body

  • A lesser element of the body

  • A trace element of the body

    • Vitamin Labels


Molecules and compounds
Molecules and Compounds

  • Molecule – two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

  • Compound – two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together (water or H2O is an example)


Mixtures and solutions
Mixtures and Solutions

  • Mixtures – two or more components physically intermixed (not chemically bonded)

    • Example: blood cells in blood

  • Most mixtures can be separated by physical means

  • Solutions – homogeneous mixtures of components

    • Example: electrolytes such as Na+Cl-, K+CL-, etc.

  • Solvent – substance present in greatest amount

  • Solute – substance(s) present in smaller amounts


  • Types of chemical bonds
    Types of Chemical Bonds

    • Ionic

    • Covalent

    • Hydrogen

    • Importance of polar and nonpolar molecules


    Factors influencing rate of chemical reactions
    Factors Influencing Rate of Chemical Reactions

    • Catalysts – increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed

      • Enzymes = biological catalysts


    Biochemistry
    Biochemistry

    • Organic compounds

      • Contain carbon, are covalently bonded, and are often large

    • Inorganic compounds

      • Do not contain carbon

      • Water, salts, and many acids and bases


    Salts nacl kcl na 2 so 4 etc
    Salts (NaCL, KCL, Na2SO4, etc.)

    • Inorganic compounds

    • Contain cations other than H+ and anions other than OH–

    • Are electrolytes; they conduct electrical currents


    Acids and bases
    Acids and Bases

    • Acids release H+ and are therefore proton donors

      HCl  H+ + Cl –

    • Bases release OH– and are proton acceptors

      NaOH  Na+ + OH–


    Acid base concentration ph
    Acid-Base Concentration (pH)

    • Acidic solutions have higher H+concentration and therefore a lower pH

    • Alkaline solutions have lower H+ concentration and therefore a higher pH

    • Neutral solutions have equal H+ and OH– concentrations


    Acid base concentration ph1
    Acid-Base Concentration (pH)

    • Acidic: pH 0–6.99

    • Basic: pH 7.01–14

    • Neutral: pH 7.00

      • Blood has pH ~ 7.4

      • Most body fluids pH 7.2 – 7.6


    Buffers
    Buffers

    • Chemical systems that resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids

    • Example: Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system in blood

      • Carbonic acid dissociates, reversibly releasing bicarbonate ions and protons

      • The chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate resists pH changes in the blood


    Bicarbonate buffer system removes acid
    Bicarbonate Buffer System Removes Acid

    • If blood is too acidic:

    • HLac(aq) + HCO3-(aq) ↔ Lac-(aq) + H2CO3(aq)

    • Lactic Acid + Bicarbonate Lactate + Carbonic Acid

    • If blood is too basic (alkaline):

    • H2CO3(aq) ↔ H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)Carbonic Acid Protons + Bicarbonate


    Organic compounds
    Organic Compounds

    • Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds

    • They include 4 important macromolecular biochemical polymers:

      • Carbohydrates

      • Lipids Be able to identify from

      • Proteins descriptions or pictures

      • Nucleic Acids

    }


    Carbohydrates
    Carbohydrates

    • Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

    • Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food

    • Examples:

      • Monosaccharides or simple sugars

    Figure 2.14a


    Carbohydrates1
    Carbohydrates

    • Polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars

    Figure 2.14c


    Lipids
    Lipids

    • Contain C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates

    • Examples:

      • Neutral fats or triglycerides

      • Phospholipids

      • Steroids

      • Eicosanoids


    Neutral fats triglycerides
    Neutral Fats (Triglycerides)

    • Composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule

    Figure 2.15a


    Other lipids
    Other Lipids

    • Steroids – flat molecules with four interlocking hydrocarbon rings

    Figure 2.15c


    Representative lipids found in the body
    Representative Lipids Found in the Body

    • Neutral fats – found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs

    • Phospholipids – chief component of cell membranes

    • Steroids – cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, sex hormones, and adrenal cortical hormones

    • Fat-soluble vitamins – vitamins A, E, and K


    Amino acids
    Amino Acids

    • Building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl group

    • Amino group NH2

    • Carboxyl groups COOH


    Amino acids1
    Amino Acids

    Figure 2.16a–c



    Protein

    Peptide bond

    Dehydration

    synthesis

    H

    R

    O

    H

    R

    O

    H

    R

    O

    H

    R

    O

    H2O

    N

    C

    C

    +

    N

    C

    C

    N

    C

    C

    N

    C

    C

    OH

    H

    OH

    H

    OH

    H

    H

    H

    H

    H

    Hydrolysis

    H2O

    Amino acid

    Amino acid

    Dipeptide

    Protein

    • Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds

    Figure 2.17


    Fibrous and globular proteins
    Fibrous and Globular Proteins

    • Fibrous proteins

      • Extended and strand-like proteins

      • Examples: keratin, elastin, collagen, and certain contractile fibers


    Fibrous and globular proteins1
    Fibrous and Globular Proteins

    • Globular proteins

      • Compact, spherical proteins with tertiary and quaternary structures

      • Examples: antibodies, hormones, and enzymes


    Characteristics of enzymes
    Characteristics of Enzymes

    • Frequently named for the type of reaction they catalyze

    • Enzyme names usually end in -ase

    • Lower activation energy of a reaction


    Nucleic acids
    Nucleic Acids

    • Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus

    • Their structural unit, the nucleotide, is composed of N-containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group


    Nucleic acids1
    Nucleic Acids

    • Five nitrogen bases contribute to nucleotide structure – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)

    • Two major classes – DNA and RNA


    Deoxyribonucleic acid dna
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

    • Double-stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell

    • Replicates itself before the cell divides, ensuring genetic continuity

    • Provides instructions for protein synthesis


    Structure of dna
    Structure of DNA

    Figure 2.22b


    Adenosine triphosphate atp
    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    • Source of immediately usable energy for the cell

    • Adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with three phosphate groups



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