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2. P A R T A. Chemistry Comes Alive. Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in .

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2

P A R T A

Chemistry Comes Alive

slide2

Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in

  • Blood is collected from your patient and treated so it will not clot. This blood is placed in a long narrow tube that is placed vertically on a laboratory bench. In an hour, all the blood cells have settled to the bottom of the tube, leaving the rest of the tube filled with a clear, yellowish liquid called plasma. Why did the blood cells settle out of the blood?
  • A. blood is an acidic solution of cells and plasma that sticks to the tube
  • B. blood is a mixture of solids and gases that react with the air
  • C. blood is a solution of Na+ and CL– ions that react to form a precipitate
  • D. blood is a suspension of cells in plasma that settles by gravity
human blood collection bellringer not to turn in
Human Blood Collection Bellringer – NOT to turn in
  • Blood is collected from your patient and treated so it will not clot. This blood is placed in a long narrow tube that is placed vertically on a laboratory bench. In an hour, all the blood cells have settled to the bottom of the tube, leaving the rest of the tube filled with a clear, yellowish liquid called plasma. Why did the blood cells settle out of the blood?
  • A. blood is an acidic solution of cells and plasma that sticks to the tube
  • B. blood is a mixture of solids and gases that react with the air
  • C. blood is a solution of Na+ and CL– ions that react to form a precipitate
  • D. blood is a suspension of cells in plasma that settles by gravity
matter
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space
  • States of matter
    • Solid – has definite shape and volume
    • Liquid – has definite volume, changeable shape
    • Gas – has changeable shape and volume
      • All are important in Anatomy & Physiology
composition of matter
Composition of Matter
  • Elements – unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
  • Atoms –building blocks for each element
major elements of the human body
Major Elements of the Human Body
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Nitrogen (N)
lesser and trace elements of the human body
Lesser and Trace Elements of the Human Body
  • Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include: Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)
  • Trace elements make up less than 0.01% of the body
if given an element identify if it is
If given an element, identify if it is…
  • A major element of the body
  • A lesser element of the body
  • A trace element of the body
    • Vitamin Labels
molecules and compounds
Molecules and Compounds
  • Molecule – two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
  • Compound – two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together (water or H2O is an example)
mixtures and solutions
Mixtures and Solutions
  • Mixtures – two or more components physically intermixed (not chemically bonded)
      • Example: blood cells in blood
  • Most mixtures can be separated by physical means
  • Solutions – homogeneous mixtures of components
          • Example: electrolytes such as Na+Cl-, K+CL-, etc.
    • Solvent – substance present in greatest amount
    • Solute – substance(s) present in smaller amounts
types of chemical bonds
Types of Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic
  • Covalent
  • Hydrogen
  • Importance of polar and nonpolar molecules
factors influencing rate of chemical reactions
Factors Influencing Rate of Chemical Reactions
  • Catalysts – increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed
    • Enzymes = biological catalysts
biochemistry
Biochemistry
  • Organic compounds
    • Contain carbon, are covalently bonded, and are often large
  • Inorganic compounds
    • Do not contain carbon
    • Water, salts, and many acids and bases
salts nacl kcl na 2 so 4 etc
Salts (NaCL, KCL, Na2SO4, etc.)
  • Inorganic compounds
  • Contain cations other than H+ and anions other than OH–
  • Are electrolytes; they conduct electrical currents
acids and bases
Acids and Bases
  • Acids release H+ and are therefore proton donors

HCl  H+ + Cl –

  • Bases release OH– and are proton acceptors

NaOH  Na+ + OH–

acid base concentration ph
Acid-Base Concentration (pH)
  • Acidic solutions have higher H+concentration and therefore a lower pH
  • Alkaline solutions have lower H+ concentration and therefore a higher pH
  • Neutral solutions have equal H+ and OH– concentrations
acid base concentration ph1
Acid-Base Concentration (pH)
  • Acidic: pH 0–6.99
  • Basic: pH 7.01–14
  • Neutral: pH 7.00
    • Blood has pH ~ 7.4
    • Most body fluids pH 7.2 – 7.6
buffers
Buffers
  • Chemical systems that resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids
  • Example: Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system in blood
    • Carbonic acid dissociates, reversibly releasing bicarbonate ions and protons
    • The chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate resists pH changes in the blood
bicarbonate buffer system removes acid
Bicarbonate Buffer System Removes Acid
  • If blood is too acidic:
  • HLac(aq) + HCO3-(aq) ↔ Lac-(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
  • Lactic Acid + Bicarbonate Lactate + Carbonic Acid
  • If blood is too basic (alkaline):
  • H2CO3(aq) ↔ H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)Carbonic Acid Protons + Bicarbonate
organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds
  • They include 4 important macromolecular biochemical polymers:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids Be able to identify from
    • Proteins descriptions or pictures
    • Nucleic Acids

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carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food
  • Examples:
    • Monosaccharides or simple sugars

Figure 2.14a

carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars

Figure 2.14c

lipids
Lipids
  • Contain C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates
  • Examples:
    • Neutral fats or triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
    • Eicosanoids
neutral fats triglycerides
Neutral Fats (Triglycerides)
  • Composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule

Figure 2.15a

other lipids
Other Lipids
  • Steroids – flat molecules with four interlocking hydrocarbon rings

Figure 2.15c

representative lipids found in the body
Representative Lipids Found in the Body
  • Neutral fats – found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs
  • Phospholipids – chief component of cell membranes
  • Steroids – cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, sex hormones, and adrenal cortical hormones
  • Fat-soluble vitamins – vitamins A, E, and K
amino acids
Amino Acids
  • Building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl group
  • Amino group NH2
  • Carboxyl groups COOH
amino acids1
Amino Acids

Figure 2.16a–c

protein

Peptide bond

Dehydration

synthesis

H

R

O

H

R

O

H

R

O

H

R

O

H2O

N

C

C

+

N

C

C

N

C

C

N

C

C

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

H

H

H

H

Hydrolysis

H2O

Amino acid

Amino acid

Dipeptide

Protein
  • Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds

Figure 2.17

fibrous and globular proteins
Fibrous and Globular Proteins
  • Fibrous proteins
    • Extended and strand-like proteins
    • Examples: keratin, elastin, collagen, and certain contractile fibers
fibrous and globular proteins1
Fibrous and Globular Proteins
  • Globular proteins
    • Compact, spherical proteins with tertiary and quaternary structures
    • Examples: antibodies, hormones, and enzymes
characteristics of enzymes
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • Frequently named for the type of reaction they catalyze
  • Enzyme names usually end in -ase
  • Lower activation energy of a reaction
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
  • Their structural unit, the nucleotide, is composed of N-containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids
  • Five nitrogen bases contribute to nucleotide structure – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)
  • Two major classes – DNA and RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid dna
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • Double-stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell
  • Replicates itself before the cell divides, ensuring genetic continuity
  • Provides instructions for protein synthesis
structure of dna
Structure of DNA

Figure 2.22b

adenosine triphosphate atp
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  • Source of immediately usable energy for the cell
  • Adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with three phosphate groups
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